A couple of weeks ago, the Spanish-language pro-Kremlin media announced that the US military supposedly appropriated 40 tons of Syrian gold stolen by ISIS/Daesh. Now, the Italian-language pro-Kremlin media is alleging that the US actually seized about 50 tons of the stolen gold. The story was taken from SANA – an official organ of the Assad government that regularly promotes the conspiracy theory that the US is cooperating with jihadist forces. At the current rate, SANA will soon be claiming that the US seized more than a hundred tons of Syrian gold. But with helicopters transporting tons of it only the sky is the limit, right?

Continuing with financial matters: Kremlin-aligned media are once again trying to portray the EU as a failure, this time by focusing on problems with the euro. Apparently, thanks to the euro, Italians are now the EU’s poorest citizens and Italy itself is the Union’s poorest member. This case is a testament to the great emancipatory power of Google, because a cursory search reveals that Italy actually ranks 15th in terms of per-capita GDP across the EU28.

Skripal anniversary

This week marks a year since two GRU-linked Russian assassins travelled to the English town of Salisbury, posing as hapless tourists keen to view the 123-metre spire of Salisbury Cathedral, and smeared a deadly, military-grade nerve agent on the handle of ex-spy Sergei Skripal’s front door in a botched attempt to fatally poison him. The operation not only failed to kill Skripal and his daughter, Yulia, but its mishandling and public aftermath reaped spectacular humiliation for the Kremlin and the Russian intelligence services.

Naturally, the pro-Kremlin disinformation machine has pursued frenetic damage control since news of the attack first broke, churning out all manner of denials, fabrications, and feverish conspiracy theories to obscure Russia’s responsibility for the poisoning, cast doubt on the findings of the British investigation, and find a scapegoat (or fifty) to blame for the attack. Here’s a look back at the (d)evolution of the pro-Kremlin media’s mendacious coverage of the Skripal case over the last year.

What happened to the Skripals? 150+ alternatives to choose from!

Since last March, EUvsDisinfo has compiled 151 disinformation cases about the poisoning that have been tailored to both international audiences and the domestic Russian public. The narratives can be roughly divided into seven categories:

1. It’s all just a Russophobic witch-hunt!
Following the tradition of much pro-Kremlin disinformation, most of the narratives about the Skripal case portray Russia as the victim of unfounded persecution, Russophobia, and anti-Russian provocation and conspiracy. According to Kremlin-aligned media, the Skripal affair is simply justification for increasing the NATO budget or fuelling anti-Russian hysteria in the West to lay the groundwork for a new Cold War. As a result of this deflection and obfuscation, only 3% of Russians believes that the Kremlin had something to do with the assassination attempt.

2. Britain did it!
At times, the originality of pro-Kremlin disinfo leaves something to be desired. Since the Skripal attack took place in the UK, suggesting that it was a British false flag operation was an obvious choice. Britain apparently had ample motive for such an attack: to trigger a boycott of the 2018 World Cup, to influence Russian elections, or to divert attention from Brexit (and from Britain’s “mass paedophilia” problem). The poisoning was most likely Theresa May’s idea, carried out by the British secret services at her request. Alternatively, though, the whole affair was an accident – the result of an internal control problem at Porton Down laboratory!

3. It was somebody else!
Even if Britain wasn’t responsible for the attack, there are plenty of other potential culprits to blame – but of course, Russia isn’t among them! Here, Kremlin-aligned media got creative, with a suspect list ranging from Georgia, Ukraine, Czechia, Slovakia, Sweden, and the US to terrorists and Yulia Skripal’s mother-in-law.

4. There is no evidence that Russia did it!
In its duty to deflect blame from Russian authorities and establish their “innocence”, the pro-Kremlin media regularly insist that there is no evidence in the Skripal case that implicates the Kremlin. Apparently, the British investigation into the attack has produced no proof of Russian involvement – the GRU agents identified as the would-be assassins were just “tourists” visiting Salisbury from London (twice in two days!) to see the “world-famous cathedral”. And anyway, neither the Soviet Union nor post-Soviet Russia have ever assassinated anyone!

5. It wasn’t Novichok!
Another set of narratives revolves around the use of Novichok in Salisbury. Pro-Kremlin media have not only claimed that no chemical weapon was used in the Skripal attack, but that Novichok doesn’t even exist – or, if it does, that it was manufactured by another country, and certainly not Russia! Most likely, Sergei Skripal just overdosed or tried to commit suicide.

6. The Skripals are kidnapped or hidden away!
Sergei and Yulia Skripal have either been kidnapped or deliberately hidden away to prevent them from telling the truth about the attack. The British secret services are most likely behind this, and are even preventing the Skripals from having any contact with their relatives.

7. The Skripals are dead!
After their alleged kidnapping, the Skripals were in fact killed and even cremated, according to pro-Kremlin media. London has sought to hide the truth of their death and even faked the interview with Yulia Skripal to bolster the deception. This conspiracy theory is likely to have a long life among pro-Kremlin sources, seeing as even the British ambassador’s official assurance that the Skripals are safe has failed to shut down this narrative.

In Estonia, racism won the election
Additional details: Estonian elections brought Nazis in tailcoats to power.


In Estonia, racism won the election.

Americans are controlling Estonian media.

 
Language / Targeted audience:
Link to the disinformation: vz.ru/politics/2019/3/4/966885.html
Disinforming outlet(s): Vzglyad
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Obviously, it wasn't the Nazis, but the Reform party that won the elections. Racism is not in the agenda of the Reform party.

Regarding the Estonian media, claims on the "US controlling the media" are unfounded. Estonia ranked 12th in the World Press Freedom Index. Ownership of the major media holdings in Estonia are transparent and diverse.

Threat of Nazism is a recurring pro-Kremlin narrative; see here for disinformation cases about Europe becoming Nazi again, Baltic states openly glorifying Nazism, Poles stoking nationalist sentiment in Ukraine in order to annex Lviv.

Keywords: Racism, Nazi/Fascist
Countries: Estonia
More
Any contacts with Russia penalised by Latvian law
Additional details: Article 81.1 of the Latvian Criminal Code criminalizes any contacts with Russia. Even relationships with people living in Russia are penalised in accordance with Latvian law.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Sputnik Latvia
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Recurring pro-Kremlin narrative on Russophobia.

Latvian Criminal Law doesn't criminalize "any contacts with Russia". Article 81.1, mentioned in the article, says: 'Assistance to a Foreign State in Action Directed against the Republic of Latvia For a person who commits activities with the purpose to assist a foreign state or a foreign organisation to take action against national independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, State power or administrative order of the Republic of Latvia, the applicable punishment is the deprivation of liberty for a period of up to five years or temporary deprivation of liberty, or community service, or a fine, with probationary supervision for a period of up to three years'.

See here for the excerpt of the Latvian Criminal Law (in English).

 

Keywords: Russophobia
Countries: Latvia, Russia
More
Ukrainian anti-corruption authorities were created and are controlled by Western embassies
Additional details: The specialised Anti-Corruption Prosecutor’s Office and National Anti-Corruption Bureau of Ukraine are bodies that, in fact, were created by agents of foreign influence who acted under the orders of foreign embassies. Today these institutions are managed by foreign embassies. They were created in order to punish all those who are not pro-American.
Language / Targeted audience:
Link to the disinformation: www.youtube.com/watch?v=TlkxbYZy6J4&t=2577s
Disinforming outlet(s): Podiyi Dnya z Tyhranom Martyrosyanom @ Nash TV Channel - (17:02-17:34)
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation narrative about Ukraine. Unfounded claims on foreign influence on Ukraine's legal system.

Eradication of corruption was one of the main demands of the Maidan protests in 2013-2014. After the new President and Parliament were elected in Ukraine in 2014, anti-corruption reform became a key objective of a new Ukrainian government, which was agreed on in a Coalition Agreement (part 3).

As a result, the new Parliament created two new independent anti-corruption bodies. The National Anti-Corruption Bureau of Ukraine is a law enforcement agency responsible for preventing, detecting, terminating, investigating and disclosing corruption offenses committed by senior officials.

The specialised Anti-Corruption Prosecutor’s Office is a prosecutorial body, which functions independently from the General Prosecutor’s Office of Ukraine. Its main tasks include prosecution of the crimes and supervision during pre-trial investigations conducted by National Anti-Corruption Bureau of Ukraine.

The EU supports anti-corruption reform in Ukraine. During an EU-Ukraine Summit in July 2018, the President of the European Commission Jean-Claude Juncker noted: “For us, the fight against corruption is an important duty for Ukraine, relevant. I will never say that Ukraine is a corrupt country, but there is corruption in Ukraine, just like in other countries. And we really pay a lot of attention to the fight against corruption, including to the steps that the Ukrainian authorities are taking".

In her visit to Ukraine in March 2018, High Representative/Vice President of the EU Federica Mogherini mentioned: “The anti-corruption institutions must be allowed to do their work independently, with enough powers and resources to investigate, prosecute and eventually ensure the conviction of those responsible for corruption.”

U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine Marie Yovanovitch also stresses the need to safeguard independence of the newly created anti-corruption authorities and to “establishing an anti-corruption court of the highest integrity, based on the Venice Commission’s opinion.”

Keywords: Ukraine, Corruption, Euromaidan
Countries: United States, Ukraine, EU
More
"Vast number" of cyberattacks on Russia from US, Europe
Additional details: Russian government websites, including the official page of Russian President Vladimir Putin, “are permanently subjected to an enormous number of cyber-attacks … from Europe and North America.”
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): RT
Reported by:
Disproof note:

No evidence given. Recurring pro-Kremlin narrative of attempts by Western governments to weaken and destabilise Russia.

Russian intelligence services have long been accused of targeting computer systems in the US and elsewhere, with a dozen of substantiated allegations made in the last two years alone. An analysis of high-profile cyber incidents since 2006 designates Russia as an "offender" in 98 cyberattacks globally, against 16 incidents where the country appears as a "victim." Conversely, US-based entities have been subjected to 117 such attacks, and perpetrated nine.

Keywords: Internet, Cyber, Encircling Russia, Destabilising Russia
Countries: United States, Russia
More
Ukraine has introduced dual citizenship but only for "Western lobbyists"
Additional details: In Ukraine, dual citizenship has been introduced, but you can only have more than one passport if you sympathise with the West.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Ukraina.ru
Reported by:
Disproof note:

This is a manipulation of a quote by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine. Pavlo Klimkin has spoken many times in favour of the introduction of dual citizenship in the country and each time the Russian media has reacted to the statements of Klimkin with misleading disinformation.

Klimkin spoke in favour of the introduction of such a regime in Ukraine, arguing that in this way the country would acquire thousands of qualified specialists from many European and Western countries.

Debunking by StopFake.

Keywords: Pavlo Klimkin, Corruption
Countries: West, Ukraine
More
ECHR refused to punish Russia over the capture of Ukrainian sailors
Additional details: The European Court of Human Rights "refused to take restrictive measures against Russia" in connection with the seizure of Ukrainian ships together with the crew in the Kerch Strait on 25 November 2018. The arguments of the Ukrainian authorities and the submissions did not convince the ECHR of the need to satisfy the stated requirements
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Interfax.ru, Ukraina.ru
Reported by:
Disproof note:

A misleading spin on ECHR procedures.

On 4th December, the ECHR issued an interim measure, that Russia should "ensure proper medical treatment for those imprisoned Ukrainian naval officers in need, including those who were wounded", in response to a case bought by Ukraine.

More recently, the Ukrainian side appealed to the European Court of Human Rights on February 15 2019, when it provided the ECHR with additional information on the health of three wounded sailors. Ukraine insisted that the transfer of military personnel to the Moscow "Lefortovo" SIZO was premature and called into question the provision of medical services to the wounded. Ukraine requested that the Court instruct Russia transfer the military back to medical facilities. In response, the ECHR stressed that this petition was in line with Ukraine’s petition from November 2018, and accordingly covered by the guidelines on provisional measures under Rule 39 provided by the European Court December 4, 2018. 

Moreover, the European Court of Human Rights refused the Russian Ministry of Justice applications (December 10 and 19, 2018) to cancel the interim measures and confirmed the effect of the measures under Rule 39.

 

Keywords: Azov sea
Countries: Russia, Ukraine
More
European Parliament accuses the Ukrainian President of using the "church split" to win the election
Additional details: Experts from the European Parliament have stated that the "schism" in the Ukrainian church is directly related to the upcoming Presidential elections and the election campaign of Petro Poroshenko. The current Ukrainian president deliberately provoked a "split" and created a "non-canonical" Orthodox Church of Ukraine to gain extra votes during the Presidential race.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): RT Russian
Reported by:
Disproof note:

This is a recurrent Kremlin narrative about religious hatred. The expert report, issued in February contains nothing that supports the claims of RT.

The report is dealing with the history of the independence of the Ukrainian church from the Russian Orthodox Church. The report stresses that the Kremlin has always controlled church issues and used branches of its church abroad as a “soft power” - to promote its own political interests. European analysts believe that the formation of the Orthodox Church of Ukraine can play a role in the Presidential elections on 31 March of this year, but the researchers stressed that the fact of obtaining the establishment of an autocephalous Ukrainian church affects the formation of the Ukrainian statehood as a whole, and not just on the eve of Presidential and Parliamentary elections.

Keywords: Orthodox Church
Countries: Ukraine
More
The US military has transferred about 50 tons of gold from Syria
Additional details: The US military transported about 50 tons of stolen gold from Syria. The US military received the gold from terrorists who had hidden the loot near the village of Al-Baghuz.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Sputnik Italia
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Recurring pro-Kremlin narrative about the US support for terrorists presented entirely without evidence. The source quoted in this article is SANA, an official organ of the Syrian government which promotes the idea of cooperation between the US and Jihadist forces.

Read a similar story here.

 

 

Keywords: Jihad, Military, Syrian War, Daesh
Countries: United States, US, Syria
More
Italians are the poorest citizens of the EU and Italy is the poorest EU country
Additional details: Italy has suffered so much from the introduction of euro that now Italians are the poorest citizens of the EU and Italy is the poorest EU country.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Sputnik Italia
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Recurring pro-Kremlin narrative demonising the EU, the Eurozone and claiming that euro is responsible for the economic downfall of many European countries.

According to IMF figures, Italy is NOT the poorest country  of EU. Italy ranks 15th in terms of per-capita GDP amongst the 28 EU countries, and 12th amongst the 19 EU countries that have adopted euro.

Similar cases here and here.

 

 

 

Keywords: EU disintegration
Countries: Italy, Europe, EU
More
NATO is increasing its strategic arsenal of weapons near Russia's borders, Russia is forced to respond
Additional details: The USA is expanding its strategic arsenal of weapons along the Russian borders, so Russia is forced to respond adequately to expansion of NATO potential.

The expansion of NATO's military potential is destroying the current global security system and prompting Russia to take countermeasures.

 
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Sputnik Deutschland
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation narrative about NATO threatening Russia.

NATO's missile defence system is purely defensive and not directed against Russia. Bilateral agreements between the US and host nations do not allow missile sites to be used for any purpose other than missile defence.

Also, NATO has reached out to Russia consistently, transparently and publicly over the past 26 years. The Alliance created unique cooperation bodies – the Permanent Joint Council and the NATO-Russia Council – to embody its relationship with Russia. It has invited Russia to cooperate on missile defence, an invitation extended to no other partner.

NATO is not encircling Russia. Russia's land border is just over 20,000 kilometres long. Of that, less than one-sixteenth (1,215 kilometres), is shared with NATO members. Russia has land borders with 14 countries. Only five of them are NATO members.

Keywords: EU/NATO enlargement, Encircling Russia, US presence in Europe, NATO
Countries: United States, Russia
More
Brussels shifts responsibility for the situation in Ukraine to Moscow
Additional details:

The European Parliamentary Research Service prepared a report which claims that Moscow will strive to discredit the results of Ukrainian elections "by organising riots and disseminating disinformation". The main purpose of such statements is the desire of Brussels to transfer to Moscow the responsibility for the situation in Ukraine after the elections.


 
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): RT
Reported by:
Disproof note:

The report of the European Parliament Think Tank on "Ukraine's presidential election 2019" is an overview of the situation in Ukraine before the elections.

The report does not mention anything about shifting the responsibility for the situation in Ukraine to Moscow. Ukraine is an independent state, responsible for its own situation.

Russia's readiness to conduct disinformation attacks before and during elections in Ukraine has been confirmed by many OSINT organisations and experts. See here for different disinformation narratives on Ukraine and Ukrainian elections.

Keywords: Ukraine, Brussels, Elections
Countries: Russia, Ukraine, EU
More
US military in Syria give ISIS militants safe passage in exchange for gold
Additional details: A group of US troops in Syria struck a deal with captured ISIS fighters, under which the militants would be granted safe passage out of Deir ez-Zor Province in exchange for tons of stolen gold. US Army choppers have already airlifted over $2 billion worth of plundered gold out of Syria.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Sputnik News
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Like an earlier Sputnik story, the report provides no factual evidence to support claims of US-ISIS dealings in gold. Both reports were originally published by SANA, Syria's state-run news agency, and cite "eyewitness accounts" and "local sources" on every detail of the transaction, including the amount of gold exchanged, its origin, the total volume transported to the US so far, and the amount remaining in ISIS coffers.

The story advances a recurring pro-Kremlin narrative on US support for ISIS.

Keywords: Jihad, Syrian War, Terrorism, Daesh
Countries: US, Syria
More
ISIS leader al-Baghdadi roams Iraqi desert under US protection
Additional details: Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the leader of ISIS, travels freely throughout Iraq's Anbar province under protection of the US military.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Sputnik News
Reported by:
Disproof note:

The story, originally reported by the Lebanese El-Nashra website, provides no factual evidence of Baghdadi's links to the US military, and rests entirely on an unverifiable statement by an Iraqi lawmaker. The report advances a recurring pro-Kremlin narrative about Washington's support for ISIS and other terrorist organizations in the Middle East.

Keywords: Middle East, Terrorism, Daesh
Countries: Iraq, US, Syria
More
Political competition in Ukraine is only an imitation. The West will bring Poroshenko to power
Additional details: Ukraine is imitating political competition along the model of modern Western Europe. But actually there is no political competition. The West will bring Poroshenko to power. In fact all frontrunners in the election would be acceptable for the West, as they would do as they are told. But Poroshenko has advantages, as he has already proven himself. If he wins the elections, it is obvious that it would happen with great violations. Just look at the millions of Ukrainians that cannot vote. These elections have nothing to do with democracy.
Language / Targeted audience:
Link to the disinformation: www.youtube.com/watch?v=9LCpS4hlqAk
Disinforming outlet(s): Vremya Pokazhet @ Pervyi Kanal (07:05 - 08:20)
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Conspiracy theory with no evidence given. Consistent with recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation narrative on the presidential election in Ukraine.

The election will not be held in the territories that are not under the control of Ukrainian authorities. According to the Ukraine's Central Election Commission presidential elections will be held in 12 out of 21 districts in Donetsk region, as well as in 6 out of 11 districts in Luhansk region, while the elections in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, which are occupied by Russia, will not be held at all.

 

Keywords: Democracy, Petro Poroshenko, Elections, The West
Countries: Ukraine
More
Humanitarian aid for Venezuela is actually a means to supply weapons to the opposition
Additional details: A US assault against Venezuela is underway, with the purpose of installing of a 'puppet' in office.

Supposed humanitarian aid supplies from the USA to Venezuela actually contain many hidden weapons to support the Venezuelan opposition. The humanitarian aid should simplify a change of regime.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): News Front DE
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Conspiracy theory presented without any evidence. Recurring pro-Kremlin narrative about the West meddling in and destabilising countries around the world.

Background:

Several Venezuelan NGOs, such as Foro Penal Venezolano, Súmate, Voto Joven, the Venezuelan Electoral Observatory and the Citizen Electoral Network, raised questions on the election of Nicolas Maduro on May 20, 2018. They expressed their concern over the irregularities of the electoral schedule, including the lack of the Constituent Assembly's competencies to summon the elections, impeding participation of opposition political parties, and the lack of time for standard electoral functions. This caused the European Union, the Organization of American States, the Lima Group, Australia and the United States to express concerns on the electoral process.

In the declaration on behalf of the EU on the situation in Venezuela the High Representative for Foreign and Security Policy/Vice-President of the European Commission, Federica Mogherini reiterated that the presidential elections last May in Venezuela were neither free, fair, nor credible, and that they were lacking democratic legitimacy. The EU has called for the urgent holding of free, transparent and credible presidential elections in Venezuela.

Food shortages, poverty and hyperinflation (which according to the IMF estimates is about to reach over 10 million % based on the average consumer prices) have generated a wave of 3 millions refugees from Venezuela and the protests in Venezuela itself, when President of the National Assembly of Venezuela Juan Guido stepped in as an interim president on the basis of the Venezuelan Constitution. Read more here.

Keywords: Nicolas Maduro
Countries: Venezuela
More
Ukrainian government discriminates national minorities
Additional details: Russophobia is manifested in all spheres of life – in education, language policy, and religious affairs. The authorities [of Ukraine] restrict the rights of those who speak another language, visit other churches, and support alternative “civilisation choice.”
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Newsone
Reported by:
Disproof note:

No evidence given. Recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation narrative about Ukraine.

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in the Report on the human rights situation in Ukraine (conducted between 16 August and 15 November 2018) reported that the war in Eastern Ukraine remains a key human rights issues in Ukraine. The issues of religion and language policy were also in the focus.

The Commissioner reported that the tensions between Orthodox churches in Ukraine increased, but interested groups and individuals should take all steps to prevent any conflict situations. It also mentioned that a new education law that sets out a new language policy that should ensure a fair correlation between the State language and the rights of minorities. Apart from this, it witnessed a number of improvements of the rights to social security and protection of internally displaced persons.

Keywords: Human rights, Russian language, War in Ukraine
Countries: Ukraine
More
After the Euromaidan, Ukrainian economy is in disarray
Additional details: Five years after the Euromaidan, the Ukrainian economy is in disarray. From 2013 to 2017, the inflow of direct foreign investments has decreased threefold - from $ 5.5 bln USD to $ 1.87 bln USD. For all other indicators, the last five years have showed a negative trend.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Antimaydan
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation narrative about Ukraine.

During the last 3-4 years the situation has stabilised and improved. According to Moody’s estimates, Ukraine’s credit rating increased from Ca (Negative) in March 2015 to Caa1 (Stable) in December 2018. Standard&Poor’s reiterated that Ukraine’s rating remains stable.

After economic crisis in 2014-2015, the Ukrainian economy started to recover in 2016 with a GDP growth of 2,3%. In 2017, it grew by 2,5%. In the second quarter of 2018, GDP growth accelerated to 3,6%. IMF projects that economic growth will continue and in 2022 GDP will reach 162 bln USD.

The total foreign direct investments in Ukraine were lowest in 2016, but in 2017 and 2018 they started to increase and as of October 2018, according to State Statistical Service of Ukraine, reached the level of 2015.

Background:

As a result of Russia's occupation of Crimea and the war in Eastern Ukraine, Ukraine lost 1/5 of its export and 15,0% of GDP. In first quarter of 2014, the share of Donetsk and Luhansk regions in Ukraine’s volume of industrial production amounted to 23 percent and 14½ percent in retail trade.

Keywords: economy, Eastern Ukraine, Abandoned Ukraine, Economic difficulties, War in Ukraine
Countries: Ukraine
More
USA prepare military intervention in Venezuela
Additional details: USA deploy troops and prepare military intervention in Venezuela.

The transfer of American special forces to Puerto Rico, the stationing of US military units in Colombia and other facts obviously show that the Pentagon is strengthening its military in the region with the aim of forcing President Maduro out of office.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): RT Deutsch
Reported by:
Disproof note:

No evidence given. Recurring pro-Kremlin narrative about the protests in Venezuela. 

According to Reuters, "U.S. officials have dismissed Russian allegations about U.S. plans for Venezuela as baseless "propaganda". Also, several US military officials have stressed there are no military options actively being considered for Venezuela.

Keywords: Nicolas Maduro, Protest, Provocation, War preparation
Countries: United States, Venezuela
More
The West does not want a strong Russia
Additional details: America and Europe do not want a strong Russia. They are using Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko against Russia. They need a Poroshenko who always screams: Russia is dangerous, we are at war with Russia.

If it is the will of the Western world, then Poroshenko should win again.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Sputnik Deutschland
Reported by:
Disproof note:
No evidence given. Recurring pro-Kremlin narrative on Western belligerence towards Russia and conspiracy theory about the West using Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko in order to destabilise Russia.
For instance, NATO as the Western organisation created unique cooperation bodies – the Permanent Joint Council and the NATO-Russia Council – to embody its relationship with Russia. It has invited Russia to cooperate on missile defence, an invitation extended to no other partner. The Warsaw Summit Communique 2016 describes NATO's official policy towards Russia: "The Alliance does not seek confrontation and poses no threat to Russia. But we cannot and will not compromise on the principles on which our Alliance and security in Europe and North America rest".
There were democratic Presidential elections held on 25 May 2014 in Ukraine. The Ukrainian people, but not the West, have elected the President Poroshenko. The OSCE characterised the elections as showing the "clear resolve of the authorities to hold what was a genuine election largely in line with international commitments and with a respect for fundamental freedoms". According to the OSCE, the only areas where serious restrictions were reported were those controlled by separatists, who undertook "increasing attempts to derail the process." This fact was reconfirmed by the parliamentary elections of 26 October 2014. The OSCE characterised the vote as "an amply contested election that offered votes real choice, and a general respect for fundamental freedoms".

 

Keywords: Encircling Russia, Russophobia, Petro Poroshenko, The West
Countries: Russia, Ukraine, EU, US
More
Ukrainian literary language is an artificial language created by the Soviet authorities
Additional details: Ukrainian literary language is a result of the Soviet rule. The language was artificially created, collected, cleaned, and put to use by Soviets. It’s a heritage of the Soviet Union.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): RT
Reported by:
Disproof note:

According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, modern literary Ukrainian emerged out of the colloquial Ukrainian tongue at the end of XVIII century. The Russian Empire and the Austrian-Hungarian Empire greatly influenced the development of the Ukrainian literary language by imposing various restrictions.

There is a long history of Ukrainian literature; rooted in ancient oral traditions. As in many other European countries, a nationalist movement appeared in the early part of the 19th century. Several Ukrainian writers started to use the Ukrainian language and its traditions to create a national literature. The language was formalised long before the Soviet power was established in Ukraine.

The attitude of the Soviet regime to the Ukrainian language also varied from encouragement and tolerance to discouragement. For example, after 1932-1933, years of massive repression and discrimination were held against the Ukrainophones, Ukrainian was demoted to a language of secondary importance.

Attacks on the Ukrainian language is one of the recurring topics of pro-Kremlin propaganda. Here you could find similar examples.

Keywords: Ukrainian statehood
Countries: USSR, Ukraine
More
No public evidence of the use of Novichok in Salisbury
Additional details: A year after the Salisbury poisoning, still no evidence of the use of Novichok was presented to the public.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): RT.com
Reported by:
Disproof note:

This is a recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation narrative about Skripal poisoning, one of many competing and contradictory stories promulgated by pro-Kremlin outlets about this case. See here and here for EUvsDisinfo summary of disinformation narratives surrounding Skripal poisoning.

British police have presented a solid chain of evidence about the Skripal case, including pictures, that connects the two suspects to particular locations in the case. Parts of the material have been released to the public. British police and intelligence investigations have produced sufficient hard evidence to charge two Russian nationals for the attack on the Skripals. More British public documents and statements on the case can be found here.

The report from the OPCW confirmed the UK findings in the Skripal poisoning, specifically the purity of the toxin. 

Novichok was developed in Russia in the 1970s and 1980s. It's so unusual, that very few scientists outside of Russia have any real experience in dealing with it and no country outside of Russia is known to have developed the substance. See reports by CNN, BBC, the Guardian.

 

Keywords: novichok, Sergei Skripal, Conspiracy
Countries: UK, Russia
More
INF Treaty dissolution could provoke Ukraine to develop its own nuclear program
Additional details: The US has begun to promote the idea that, after leaving the INF Treaty, Ukraine in particular could afford the luxury of doing whatever it wants. Ukraine is not a member of this treaty, because the INF Treaty was signed when the USSR existed.

As soon as Ukraine gets nuclear weapons, Europe will begin to get very nervous, because Ukraine is a country where Nazis and supporters of Bandera are in power.
Language / Targeted audience:
Link to the disinformation: radiovesti.ru/brand/60948/episode/2127268/
Disinforming outlet(s): Polnyi Kontakt @ Radio Vesti FM (10:50 and 14:54)
Reported by:
Disproof note:

No evidence provided.

After the fall of the USSR, Ukraine inherited the third biggest nuclear arsenal in the world. On December 5, 1994, the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances was signed. According to the document, signatory countries - Great Britain, Russia and the United States - pledged themselves to be guarantors of the independence, sovereignty and borders of Ukraine. In exchange, Ukraine renounced its nuclear status.

In June 1996, Ukraine fully complied with its agreements - all nuclear warheads were transferred to Russia for destruction, and classified strategic bases were transferred to non-military use.

Keywords: Nuclear issues
Countries: United States, Russia, Ukraine
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No evidence of Russian role in Skripal poisoning
Additional details: One year after the alleged poisoning of Russian double agent Sergey Skripal and his daughter, the UK Government, the Western media, and NATO allies continue to accuse Russia of involvement in the incident. No evidence of Moscow's role has been made available either to the public or to the Russian government. The Skripal "poisoning" is a false-flag operation organised by UK intelligence services to demonise Russia and its leaders.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): RT
Reported by:
Disproof note:

The story advances two recurring pro-Kremlin narratives, one casting the Skripal poisoning as wholly unconnected to Russia, and one portraying Western governments as pathologically anti-Russian.

Notwithstanding the diplomatic tensions between London and Moscow, the UK law enforcement agencies are neither obliged nor reasonably expected to divulge the findings of an ongoing, domestic criminal probe to the Russian government. In September 2018, the Metropolitan Police made its findings available to the public, complete with a timeline of events leading up to and following the 4 March poisoning, as well as information on the Russia-manufactured nerve agent used.

Later that year, a meticulous open-source investigation identified the two suspects in the poisoning as Anatoliy Chepiga and Aleksandr Mishkin, both Russian military intelligence operatives who travelled to the UK using fake names and documents.

See further debunking here (in Russian) and here; this analysis of Russia's disinformation tactics regarding the incident; this commentary on the efforts by pro-Kremlin media to pollute coverage of the poisoning with contradictory and farcical narratives.

Keywords: novichok, Sergei Skripal, Diplomacy with Russia, Russophobia, Conspiracy
Countries: UK, Russia
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USA conducts Trojan horse operation with "fifth column" in Syria
Additional details: As the US are preparing for the withdrawal of troops from Syria, they are still pursuing a firm policy against the humanitarian actions of Damascus and Moscow. This approach is part of the Pentagon's new strategy of the "Trojan Horse". It consists of an active use of the potential of "fifth column" protests in order to destabilise the situation, while hitting the most important sites in the country with high-precision weapons.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Sputnik News
Reported by:
Disproof note:

No evidence given that the US are looking for a pretext to attack Syria. Recurrent Kremlin's narrative on US collaborating with ISIS and from the allegedly 'staged' human rights violations in Syria.

Syria has been excluded from League of Arab States for eight years due to human rights violations.

See more disinformation cases on Syrian war.

Keywords: Human rights, Syrian War, Daesh
Countries: US, Syria
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The Skripal case is a "dead cat" trick used by UK to divert attention from Brexit
Additional details: The incident in Salisbury is a "dead cat" trick - a strategy used by UK to divert attention from it's problems with the EU.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Tass
Vesti.ru
Gazeta.ru
Komsomolskaya Pravda
Sputnik France
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Conspiracy theory. Recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation on Salisbury attack. and connecting Skripal poisoning with Brexit. Many competing and contradictory stories promulgated by Russian state-controlled media on the Skripal poisoning. See here and here for EUvsDisinfo summary of disinformation naratives surrounding Skripal poisoning.

For the UK response on the Salisbury attack, see here.

The OPCW have confirmed the UK findings in the case.

Keywords: Sergei Skripal, Brexit, Maria Zakharova
Countries: UK, Russia
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Evidence of Sergei Skripal's death has been found
Additional details: The UK is lying about Sergei Skripal being alive. There is evidence of his death: he never contacted his relatives in Russia after being poisoned.
Language / Targeted audience:
Link to the disinformation: utro.ru/politics/2019/03/04/1392338.shtml
Disinforming outlet(s): Utro.ru
Reported by:
Disproof note:

This is a recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation narrative about the Salisbury attack and the conspiracy theory about the Skripals' death. There are no grounds to believe that the Skripals are dead rather than merely in hiding from those who attempted to murder them.

Recently, Sir Laurie Bristow, Britain's ambassador to Russia, confirmed that Sergei and Yulia Skripal are both alive. He told Interfax that neither party was interested in talking to Russian officials. The ambassador emphasised that if the Skripals want to meet with representatives of Russian officials, the British side will facilitate such an opportunity.

There are many competing and contradictory stories promulgated by Russian state-controlled media about the Skripal poisoning.

Keywords: novichok, Sergei Skripal
Countries: UK, Russia
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Salisbury attack could have been a farce with Skripal playing lead role
Additional details: The Salisbury poisoning could have been a farce prepared by London, with Sergei Skripal playing the lead role. But in the end, the British probably miscalculated the poison dosage, or actually decided to kill Skripal altogether.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Tsargrad TV
Reported by:
Disproof note:

No evidence given. This is a recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation narrative about the Salisbury poisoning. The disinformation message has been created as a series of inconsistencies, implying a British government conspiracy behind the Skripal case.

British police have presented a solid chain of evidence about the Skripal case, including pictures, that connects the two identified suspects to particular locations in the case. Parts of this material have been released to the public.

The claim that the UK allegedly staged the poisoning is an unfounded conspiracy theory.

Keywords: novichok, Sergei Skripal, Provocation, Conspiracy
Countries: UK, Russia
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OPCW's very light report is not clear about whether chemical attack happened in Douma
Additional details: On April 7, 2018, was Douma really victim of a chemical attack? And if yes, who committed it? OPCW's report reads: The toxic chemical was probably the molecular chlorine. It gives reasonable grounds to believe that the use of a toxic chemical as a weapon occurred. The use of the term probably or "reasonable grounds" does not allow us to have any certainty.

Several British media have said that witnesses who appear in the video of the Douma hospital say themselves that the chemical attack on Douma was staged. The information was confirmed on Twitter by a BBC producer.

 
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): RT France
Reported by:
Disproof note:

In its final report, the OPCW does not leave any doubts on the detection of chlorine on Douma: "based on the levels of chlorinated organic derivatives, detected in several environmental samples gathered at the sites of alleged use of toxic chemicals, which are not naturally present in the environment, the FFM concludes that the objects from which the samples were taken at both locations had been in contact with one or more substances containing reactive chlorine" (page3 of the report).

The claims that videos taken in a Douma hospital after the chemical attack were staged are a recurring narrative of pro-Kremlin outlets. See our reporting and Bellingcat coverage how Russian and Syrian state media has used fiction movies to "prove" the Douma attacks were staged.

See more disinformation cases on chemical attack in Douma.

Keywords: Douma, Chemical weapons/attack
Countries: Syria
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Lithuania and Poland conduct aggressive hybrid war against Russia
Additional details: The joint Lithuanian, Polish and Ukrainian Brigade, LITPOLUKRBRIG is an example of a Western hybrid army in Eastern Europe. This is an element of aggressive hybrid war to destabilise Russia.

In reality, Poland and Lithuania do not plan to send armies to Donbas to support Kyiv. Instead, through LITPOLUKRBRIG, Poland and Lithuania intend to contain Russia by supplying Soviet weapons to Kyiv, amongst others. Military associations such as LITPOLUKRBRIG give the US the means to preserve its influence in Eastern Europe, even if the EU creates a common army.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Sputnik Belarus
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Recurring pro-Kremlin narratives about civil war in Ukraine and Western belligerence towards Russia and its allies such as Belarus.

It was Russia that provoked a war in Ukraine. For further debunking see here.

Lithuanian–Polish–Ukrainian Brigade LITPOLUKRBRIG is a multinational unit consisting of subunits from the Lithuanian, Polish and Ukrainian Armed Forces. The Agreement on its creation was signed on the 19th of September 2014 in Warsaw. The Brigade was finally formed in the Autumn of 2015. Establishment of the Lithuanian-Polish-Ukrainian Brigade is a part of continuous process of consistent and long-term military cooperation between Poland, Ukraine and Lithuania. This model of cooperation has been previously carried out in the framework of the Polish-Ukrainian Battalion (POLUKRBAT) and Lithuanian-Polish Battalion (LITPOLBAT). These military units existed respectively in the years 1998-2010 and 1997-2008.

Keywords: Anti-Russian, Civil war, War preparation, Destabilising Russia, Donbas
Countries: West, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania, Poland
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Russia's accusation of Skripal poisoning is a deadcatting strategy
Additional details: What happened in Salisbury on March 4, 2018? A year later, the British have not yet provided a clear explanation. But the answer to the question "why is all this necessary?" is now obvious.

This is part of the "dead cat" strategy, explained by former British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson. When someone is being defeated in an argument, the best thing to do is to "throw a dead cat on the table" said Johnson. This produces a clear effect: it attracts attention and makes everyone scream  - distracting from the real problems.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Sputnik News Fr
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Boris Johnson indeed spoke about a "dead cat", but it was 5 years before the Skripals’ poisoning, on 3 March 2013, while talking about the euro.

Straight after the poisoning of the Skripals, Boris Johnson pointed the finger at Russian President Vladimir Putin as "overwhelmingly likely" to be responsible: "Our quarrel is with Putin's Kremlin and with his decision, and we think it is overwhelmingly likely that it was his decision to direct the use of a nerve agent on the streets of the U.K." Johnson said.

British police have presented a solid chain of evidence about the Skripal's poisoning by the highly toxic nerve agent Novichok, including pictures, that connect the two suspects to particular locations involved in the case. Parts of the material have been released to the public.

Independent investigative media outlets Belligcat and The Insider recently identified a third GRU agent involved in the Salisbury operation, in addition to the other two identified before.

More disinformation cases on the Skripal poisoning can be seen here.

Keywords: novichok, Sergei Skripal
Countries: UK, Russia
More
NATO tanks at Moldova borders
Additional details: NATO tanks reached the borders of the Moldovan state. The Alliance command decided to increase the presence of its ground forces in the immediate vicinity of Moldova to carry out a military exercise exactly during the period of greatest political instability - immediately after the parliamentary elections.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Vedomosti.md, Point, Sputnik Moldova, Ortodoxinfo
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Indeed, at the end of February 2019, US troops deployed in Europe, along with military equipment, arrived at the "Mihail Kogalniceanu" Air Base in Constanta County. This operation is part of the United States' commitment to securing NATO's Eastern flank security under the Atlantic Resolve Operation.

According to the Romanian Ministry of Defense, the military will participate this year in multinational exercises alongside soldiers from the structures of the Romanian Land Forces. The 1st Aviation Brigade deployed military and aviation techniques in Germany, Latvia and Poland during this same period.

These operations were not planned in relation to the parliamentary elections in the Republic of Moldova. The link made with the elections is tendentious and tenuous, falling in line with a recurrent pro-Kremlin disinformation narrative of Western, and particularly US, involvement in Moldova's internal affairs.

Keywords: EU/NATO enlargement, NATO
Countries: Romania, Moldova, US
More
West continues investing in the destabilisation of Belarus through Lithuania and Western media
Additional details: A recent report by Lithuania's State Security Department and articles relating to Belarus in the Western media are part of Western information war against Belarus.

Western countries and the US want to foster negative public opinion about Belarusian authorities and their policies. Closer cooperation between Belarus and Russia should take place to counteract the West's information war and hybrid threats.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Voenno-politicheskoe obozrenie, https://www.belvpo.com/101260.html/
4esnok, https://4esnok.by
Teleskop, http://teleskop-by.org/
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Conspiracy theory, which is part of the recurring pro-Kremlin narrative about Western information war against Russia and Belarus.

The National Threat Assessment 2019 is a regular annual report produced by the State Security Department and Lithuania's Ministry of National Defence.

 

 

Keywords: Hybrid war, Information war, The West
Countries: West, Russia, Lithuania, Belarus
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Russia shut down its chemical weapons programmes decades ago and has destroyed its stockpiles of chemical weapons
Additional details: Russia ceased producing chemical weapons in 1992 and has destroyed its stockpile of chemical weapons.

 
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Sputnik Italia
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Recurrent pro-Kremlin narrative that Russia shut down all its chemical weapons programmes decades ago and that it had nothing to do with the poisoning and attempted murder of former Russian spy Skripal in Salisbury. See previous cases here.

The first claim about chemical weapons has been refuted by the UK government’s investigation into the Salisbury attack. The UK government's assessment of the attack is fully supported by leading Western states. This investigation found that Sergey and Yuliya Skripal were poisoned using a specific Novichok nerve agent. This was confirmed by an independent OPCW [Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons] analysis.

Novichok nerve agents were developed by the Soviet Union in the 1980s under a programme codenamed FOLIANT.  According to the UK intelligence assessment, based on open-source analysis and intelligence information, over the past decade, Russia has produced and stockpiled small quantities of Novichok agents, long after it signed the Chemical Weapons Convention.

On 6 September, the UK, the US, France, Germany and Canada issued a joint statement, saying they had “full confidence” in the UK’s assessment that the Salisbury attack used  Novichok nerve agents, and that it  has been carried out by Russia’s GRU agency and “almost certainly approved at a senior government level”.

Further background can be seen here, here and here.

 

Keywords: novichok, Sergei Skripal, Chemical weapons/attack, Provocation
Countries: UK, Russia
More
Artificial variation of Polish alphabet is used in Minsk metro
Additional details: Minsk metro station names are spelled using the Latin alphabet based on an artificial variation of the Polish alphabet. This transliteration has no official recognition. Foreigners and locals alike do not understand it. Minsk metro stations should use the Russian names instead of the Belarusian ones, which are spelled using the Belarusian Latin alphabet.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Together with Russia
Reported by:
Disproof note:

An unfounded claim on Polish transliteration of the station names in the Minsk metro. The Belarusian names, written in Cyrillics, are transliterated according to an official standard for writing Belarusian names with Latin letters, established in 2007. The instruction was adopted by a decree of the Belarusian State Committee on Land Resources, Geodetics and Cartography, and is therefore officially recognised. The standard is based partially on the historical Belarusian Latin alphabet or Łacinka, which incorporates features of both the Polish and Czech alphabets.

See an earlier case about the alleged use of the Polish Latin alphabet in Minsk metro.

Keywords: Russian language
Countries: Belarus
More
US and Ukrainian authorities conduct a war in Ukraine
Additional details: A war against the Ukrainian people is conducted by the US and fascist Ukraine's authorities. The ongoing presidential campaign is entirely controlled and managed by the United States. After the election, this war will continue and will result in Ukraine's complete economic, social and demographic collapse. Ukrainian law-enforcement agencies have turned into armed, corrupt and terrorist structures.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Together with Russia
Reported by:
Disproof note:

Recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation narratives about fascists ruling Ukraine and the war in Ukraine. It was Russia who annexed Crimea and provoked a war in Dombas, not the US.

Keywords: War in Ukraine, Elections, Nazi/Fascist
Countries: Ukraine, US
More
Skripal poisoning is a well-planned operation by the British intelligence
Additional details: Skripal poisoning is a well-planned operation by the British intelligence. UK knew that some Russians are coming to Salisbury for "negotiations" and used this opportunity to accuse Moscow of poisoning.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): News Front
Reported by:
Disproof note:

This is a recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation narrative about the Salisbury poisoning. The claim about the UK allegedly staging the Skripals' poisoning is an unfounded conspiracy theory.

UK police and intelligence investigations have produced hard evidence which is sufficient to charge two Russian nationals for the attack on the Skripals. These two individuals have been established as officers of the Russian Military Intelligence, GRU. More UK public documents/statements on the case here and here.

The EU Member States support the UK findings, and decided unanimously to introduce sanctions against the GRU officers responsible and their commanding officers.

Keywords: Sergei Skripal
Countries: UK, Russia
More
Infiltrated US marine 'caught' in the barricades in Venezuela
Additional details: A US marine infiltrated the 'guarimberos' (a popular term for the participants on 'guarimbas' or barricades). He was leading the violent incidents on the Colombia-Venezuela border and teaching subversive techniques to the 'guarimberos' hired by opposition deputy José Manuel Olivares. This proves that the Venezuelan right, Colombian president Iván Duque and the US have plans to promote violence in the country.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Sputnik Spanish
Reported by:
Disproof note:

A simple check to the marine's Instagram account that appears in the video in Lechuginos web page is enough to debunk the whole theory. Far from carrying out an infiltration, which would require a high degree of secrecy, Luis Medina, a US marine of Venezuelan origin, boasts about his participation in the riots and that he is part of the US Army. There is nothing to suggest that this is a clandestine operation but rather a citizen who joined the protests on an individual basis and just happened to be a military officer; even less so that he led the violent incidents. This is a recurrent narrative that the US is staging provocations in Venezuela to justify a military intervention, as you can see here and here.

Keywords: Juan Guaido, Provocation
Countries: Venezuela
More
Yulia Skripal is in a maternity hospital
Additional details: Yulia Skripal has been already for month and a half in a maternity hospital. Nobody know who is the father of her child.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Sputnik Georgia
Reported by:
Disproof note:

No evidence given. This is another case of pro-Kremlin disinformation about the Skripal poisoning. For more examples see here.

 

Keywords: novichok, Sergei Skripal
Countries: UK, Russia
More
English people are in minority in London, while depopulation will wipe Georgia off the face of the Earth by 2060
Additional details: Fewer than 30% of Londoners today are ethnically English.

According to United Nations data, Georgia is among the “disappearing” nations which will be wiped off the face of the Earth due to depopulation in 40 years’ time.
Language / Targeted audience:
Disinforming outlet(s): Beregite muzhchin: Gruzinskiy ekspert o testosterone i problemakh demografii @ Sputnik-Georgia (sputnik-georgia.ru), time 15:47
Reported by:
Disproof note:

No evidence for 'dissapearance' of Georgia given.

According to the UK Office for National Statistics's data from the 2011 UK national census, 37% of the population of London were born outside the UK. White British accounted for 44.9%, Asian British for 18.4%, and Black British for 13.3%.

According to the world population prospects graph by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs’ Population Division, Georgia’s population in 2060 will fall, within the 80% probabilistic interval, TO between about 3 million and 3.5 million, down from the current 3.7 million

Background

Recurring narrative exaggerating the impact of immigration and changing European demographic balance, also implying that the Georgian authorities, under Western pressure, are forced to adopt a pro-migration policy and sacrifice their national identity.

Keywords: Demography, Migration crisis
Countries: United Nations, UK, Georgia
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