NATO is conducting non-stop activities of mobilization nature. And Russia is already presented as the main adversary. There are no direct threats to attack Russia. Nevertheless, different scenarios are being worked out. For example, to exclude options similar to the “annexation” of Crimea. The threat to Kaliningrad exclave has increased many times. One of the high-ranking NATO generals announced that a military operation against Kaliningrad region is possible. So, NATO exercises are a direct immediate threat to Russian borders.
The European Union’s losses from sanctions against Russia are estimated at hundreds of billions of euros.
Recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation narrative about Western sanctions on Russia attempting to make out that they have backfired. Since March 2014, the EU has progressively imposed restrictive measures against Russia. The measures were adopted in response to the illegal annexation of Crimea and the deliberate de-stabilisation of Ukraine.
By the most recent research into the effect of sanctions, the cumulative export loss to Russia during 2014-2018 is estimated at EUR 30 billion (about -0.2% of EU’s GDP in 2018), incurred largely during 2014-2016, as EU exports to Russia recovered in 2017.
EU wide impacts of the export losses are estimated at less than 0,2% of total value-added and employment. The potential total impact of the sanctions for the Russian economy is estimated at 8% to 10% GDP.