Disinfo: Parent 1 and Parent 2 are used in French schools due to more same-sex marriage


Parent 1 and Parent 2 have been used in official US documents for almost 10 years now. In France, they have been introduced in school programmes. The explanation is the growing number of same-sex marriages.


This claim is entirely false. It is consistent with recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation narratives about the West's alleged moral decline and rejection of traditional family values in favour of LGBTQ rights.

In the US, as of December 2010, the word "parent" (without numbers one or two) replaced "father" and "mother" in passport applications and consular records of births abroad. This designation therefore applies to people born outside the US and pertains only to this specific domain - it is not standardised terminology.

Meanwhile, in France, a bill was indeed proposed to introduce the use of "Parent 1" and "Parent 2" in school paperwork. However, after passing the first reading of the National Assembly, it was abandoned. Documentation for French schools may now contain only references to "mother", "father" and "another legal representative".

For more disinformation cases on LGBTQ "propaganda" in the West, see here.


  • Reported in: Issue184
  • DATE OF PUBLICATION: 15/02/2020
  • Language/target audience: Russian
  • Country: US, France
  • Keywords: LGBT


Cases in the EUvsDisinfo database focus on messages in the international information space that are identified as providing a partial, distorted, or false depiction of reality and spread key pro-Kremlin messages. This does not necessarily imply, however, that a given outlet is linked to the Kremlin or editorially pro-Kremlin, or that it has intentionally sought to disinform. EUvsDisinfo publications do not represent an official EU position, as the information and opinions expressed are based on media reporting and analysis of the East Stratcom Task Force.

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Pro-Western development would mean the end of Belarus

Currently, the pro-Western vector of development seems to prevail in Belarus. However, it does not have a future either for the Belarusian people, the Belarusian state, or its ruler Alyaksandr Lukashenka. In contrast, a pro-Russian vector for Belarus would secure the continued existence of the Belarusian people and modernisation of the Belarusian economy.


This is a classic example of a false dilemma used in pro-Kremlin disinformation, specifically to undermine the prospects of Western orientation in Belarus' political development. The narrative presents Belarus' choice in zero-sum, black-and-white terms: either economic modernisation and prosperity in a union with Russia vs. loss of sovereignty with a pro-EU course.

See earlier disinformation cases positing similar false dilemmas, like that Ukraine and Belarus face an unavoidable loss of sovereignty without remaining an integral part of Russia, that a Union State of Belarus and Russia is necessary to prevent Belarus' impoverishment and degradation, and that becoming Russia's protectorate would save Belarus from forced Polonisation and economic devastation.

The US fought Russia in Donbas through Ukraine, now it wants to make Belarus Russophobic

American military and politicians like “Anaconda” strategy. They surround Russia and China with hundreds of military bases and make an illusion of creating a blocking ring. Americans also create client regimes along the perimeter of Russian borders. The US State Secretary Mike Pompeo was allured to visit Belarus because of Alyaksandr Lukashenka’s actions countering the Union State of Belarus and Russia. The US aims to use the opportunity of making Belarus Russophobic. By adding Belarus into the chain of Russophobic regimes the US would reach information and ideological victory over Russia.

In 2014, in Kyiv, they also tried to implement its “Anaconda” plan by cutting Donbas off Russian border and crushing its forces afterwards. The plan was obviously elaborated by US advisers, as Soviet military academies taught different tactics. Indeed, the correctness of Soviet military doctrine was well demonstrated in Donbas when overwhelming Ukrainian forces where cut into pieces, surrounded and destroyed by much weaker units of local militia and soldiers on leave.


This is a conspiracy which is consistent with a recurring pro-Kremlin narrative about the West's intentions to encircle Russia and to destabilise China, in particular, by implementing the "Anaconda" strategy. It is also consistent with narratives about West's attempts to disrupt Belarusian-Russian relations, and about Ukraine as Western puppet used to fight Russia.

The narrative denies Russian military involvement in Donbas while there is irrefutable evidence of direct Russian military involvement in Eastern Ukraine. The EU has condemned the clear violation of Ukrainian sovereignty and territorial integrity by acts of aggression by the Russian armed forces since February 2014.

The JIT is blaming Russia for MH17 to hide the flaws of its investigation

The Netherlands is shunning a fully-fledged investigation into the MH17 plane crash. By refusing Russia’s request to share its MH17 files, Dutch authorities once again avoided taking all necessary measures to conduct a comprehensive investigation into the MH17 crash.

The Joint Investigation Team (JIT)’s accusations against Moscow are part of its strategy to cover up its own mistakes in the MH17 investigation.


This is a recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation narrative attempting to undermine the credibility of the Joint Investigation Team (JIT) that is investigating the MH17 disaster.

Firstly, Russia's stated interest to be involved in the JIT investigation is not a sufficient condition for its membership in the team. The crash did not take place over Russian territory and claimed no Russian lives, which precludes any basis for Moscow to be represented in the JIT. Dutch Chief Prosecutor Fred Westerbeke told a Russian newspaper that "if MH17 were shot down over Russia, I would have suggested that Russia be made a member of the JIT group."