Relations between Moscow and the West have deteriorated due to the situation in Ukraine and around Crimea, which was reunited with Russia after a referendum on the peninsula. Moscow was accused of interfering and sanctions against it were imposed. Russia retaliated, embarking on a course of import substitution. Also, the authorities have repeatedly noted that it is counterproductive to talk with Moscow in the language of sanctions. Russia has repeatedly stressed that it does not participate in the conflict in Ukraine and is not a subject of the Minsk settlement agreements.
Poland contributed 58 billion euros to the EU budget and received from this budget 181 billion euros. Although, if we add to this calculation obvious costs coming from EU membership, this balance becomes extremely unfavourable – 310 billion euros in total costs and 181 billion euros in profits in the form of EU funds. It means that Poland lost almost EUR 130 billion euros throughout 16 years of its membership in the EU.
The calculations of “obvious costs” coming from EU membership presented in this article (lost profits from labour migration; use of Polish assets by Western “capital”; rapture of economic ties with Russia) are not shared by reputable economists.
There is no doubt among economists and international research centres that EU membership has been extremely beneficial for Poland in all aspects, in particular, the economy, finances and investments. After its EU accession, Poland started to be perceived as an economic success story.
During the last two decades, Poland has become one of the most dynamic economies in Europe. It enjoys uninterrupted economic growth since the early 1990s, with average GDP growth of 4.2% a year, doubling its GDP between 1990 and 2015. This growth allowed Poland to narrow the economic gap with the most developed EU countries – the Polish GDP (at PPP) has increased from 32% to 60% of the Western European average (EU-15). Read more about how the EU membership helped Poland to transform its economy here.