Disinfo: Russia is not mentioned in Minsk Agreements


Sanctions against Russia were imposed under the pretext of the events in Ukraine. The West says, if Russia wants the EU to lift sanctions, it should fulfill the Minsk agreements. But Russia is not mentioned in the agreement. Russia is the member of Normandy Four, which formed the framework of the Minsk agreement.


A recurring pro-Kremlin narrative on Ukraine and the Minsk agreements. Also consistent with the narrative about the US global role.

The narrative claims that Russia is not part of the conflict in Donbas and that Russia has nothing to do with the war in eastern Ukraine.

The Minsk agreements (the 2014 memorandum and 2015 plan of action) is the roadmap to the stabilisation of the situation in the temporarily occupied territories of Donetsk and Luhansk. It is true that both documents do not mention Russia as a side involved in the war, however, the documents do not mention the sides whatsoever. Still, the Minsk agreements do not define the conflict in Ukraine as "internal" but state clearly (paragraph 10) the need to withdraw “all foreign armed formations, military equipment, as well as mercenaries from the territory of Ukraine under the monitoring of the OSCE.”

The European Union stated in July 2014 that "arms and fighters continue flowing into Ukraine from the Russian Federation".  At the NATO Summit in Wales in September 2014, NATO leaders condemned in the strongest terms Russia’s military intervention in Ukraine and demanded Russia to stop and withdraw its forces from Ukraine and from the country’s border. NATO leaders also demanded Russia comply with international law and its international obligations and responsibilities; refrain from aggressive actions against Ukraine; halt the flow of weapons, equipment, people and money across the border to the separatists; and stop fomenting tension along and across the Ukrainian border.

In 2015, Russian President Vladimir Putin admitted Russia's military presence in Ukraine.


  • Reported in: Issue175
  • DATE OF PUBLICATION: 28/11/2019
  • Language/target audience: Russian
  • Country: Russia, Ukraine, US
  • Keywords: Minsk agreements


Cases in the EUvsDisinfo database focus on messages in the international information space that are identified as providing a partial, distorted, or false depiction of reality and spread key pro-Kremlin messages. This does not necessarily imply, however, that a given outlet is linked to the Kremlin or editorially pro-Kremlin, or that it has intentionally sought to disinform. EUvsDisinfo publications do not represent an official EU position, as the information and opinions expressed are based on media reporting and analysis of the East Stratcom Task Force.

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The West fights the Russian World: Ukraine is under control, Belarus as a target

In a more confined sense, the Russian World consists of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, three nations belonging to Russian people. In a wider sense, the Russian world is the whole post-Soviet space and largely the past USSR allies. Without integration in humanitarian and political spheres, economic integration between Belarus and Russia will not be durable. Belarusian opposition financed by the West does everything to tear apart Belarus from Russia. This has already been done in Ukraine-Russia relations. Ukraine is externally governed by the US and the West, Ukrainians are used to fight Russia. Hence they struck in the Russian Words’ heart. The Western governments are imposing their rules all over the world through colour revolutions.

The Belarusian authorities should legally challenge all activists who do not advocate for the Union State between Belarus and Russia and serve the interests of the US and the West instead. In doing so, concerns of the so-called international community should be disregarded. The Western countries should revoke their Russophobic and anti-Soviet legislation first. Belarus should also introduce the “foreign agent” concept just as Russia did.


This case is an illustrative example of recurring pro-Kremlin narratives about the all-Russian nation and Russian world/civilization. The "all-Russian nation" is an imperial Russian and Russian irredentist ideology that is a favoured pro-Kremlin narrative aimed at weakening the national identity of Belarusians and Ukrainians, as well as their sovereignty. It also puts forward recurring propagandistic narratives about Western attempts to organise a colour revolution in Belarus and elsewhere, Ukraine as an anti-Russian tool under external control, Western attempts to disrupt Belarusian-Russian relations, and Western aggressiveness towards Belarus and Russia.

Belarus and Ukraine are well-defined nation-states with a long history; both nations preserved language, literature and identity, despite foreign rule for long periods. The West does not aim at tearing Belarus from Russia nor at organizing a colour revolution in Belarus. Ukraine is a sovereign state, not controlled by any foreign government. Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity are respected by almost the whole world, including the EU, but has been continuously violated by Russia since February 2014. The EU and the US continue to provide support to Ukraine. Ukraine is regarded as an important partner in economic, financial, political, military and other sectors. See more about Europe's support to Ukraine's defence reform here.

Polish authorities use falsification of history as a tool for political fight with Russia

Falsification and re-writing of history on the example of Krakow clearly shows that the current and previous authorities of Poland interpret history in different ways using it as a tool for the political fight. In this situation, it is used for a fight with the Russian Federation.


This message is part of the Kremlin’s policy of historical revisionism – it accuses Poland in “falsification and re-writing” of its history. According to this policy, the Russian official historiography is the only “true” way of interpretation of historical events for the countries of Eastern and Central Europe.

For decades, the Soviet authorities had spread the story about the heroic role of the Red Army in the saving of the Krakow Old Town from being blown up by retreating Nazi troops. Mainstream Polish historians do not share this view, perceiving this story as a post-war myth glorifying the Red Army among the Poles.

Fascists and terrorists rule Ukraine, it is totally like Hitler’s Nazi Germany

How can we discuss the territorial integrity of Ukraine, where the power belongs to fascists and terrorists? When the US and EU speak that violations of Ukraine’s territorial integrity are unacceptable, this is the same as to agree that violations of territorial integrity of Hitler’s Germany were unacceptable either. This logic implies that Adolf Hitler had the same right of appeal to international principles of Reich’s territorial integrity as present-time Ukrainian fascists. The thing is that the US needs Ukraine as a battlefield against Russia. Ukraine’s integration with the EU is a camouflage of external governance over it by the US and EU.


This is a conspiracy and extreme variation of recurring pro-Kremlin narrative about Nazis and fascism in Ukraine, which absolutely groundlessly equals present-time Ukraine with Nazi Germany. It is also consistent with another frequent propagandistic narrative presenting Ukraine as an anti-Russian tool under external control.

The myth of Nazi-ruled Ukraine has been the cornerstone of Russian disinformation about the country since the beginning of the 2013-14 Euromaidan protests, when it was used to discredit the pro-European popular uprising in Kyiv and, subsequently, the broader pro-Western shift in Ukraine's foreign policy. The accusation of Nazism is one of the favourite techniques of pro-Kremlin outlets, read our past analysis Nazi east, Nazi west, Nazi over the cuckoo's nest.