In response to the crisis, the UK has committed £2.3 billion since 2012. Aid access might have been hindered since Russia vetoed a French-drafted United Nations Security Council resolution in October that would have demanded an immediate end to air strikes and military flights over Syria's Aleppo city and called for a truce and humanitarian aid access throughout Syria, . UN figures for Russian aid channelled through the UN for 2015 amount to USD 6,5 million. In general, the EU is the leading donor in the international response to the Syrian crisis, with over €8.9 billion from the EU and Member States collectively allocated in humanitarian, stabilisation and development assistance since the start of the conflict. The UK is the biggest donor in the EU.