Disinfo: Ukraine received its territory from Russia under various circumstances


The Ukrainians received their (current) territory from Russia.


Recurring pro-Kremlin narrative aimed at the revision of Ukrainian history – Ukraine is presented as a historical part of Russia, country without its own history and no tradition of state institutions. See other cases on the alleged territorial claims against Ukraine here and here. The history of the Ukrainian statehood dates back to the times of the Kievan Rus’ (9-13th centuries), which was the first East Slavic state (which gave birth to numerous Slavic principalities on the territory of present-day Russia). Throughout 13-18th centuries, major parts of the Ukrainian lands were part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Ukrainians have a rich history of independent Cossack states (Zaporozhian Sich), which existed in the 16-18th centuries. The Russian Empire established its control over the largest part of Ukraine only at the end of the 18th century – it means that throughout the major part of its history, the territory of Ukraine did not have any connection to present-day Russia. Ukraine was proclaimed as an independent state on August 24, 1991. The Ukrainian independence referendum took place on December 1, 1991 - the overwhelming majority of the population (over 90%) voted in favour of independence. Throughout the 1990s, the Russian Federation and Ukraine signed several agreements, which officially acknowledged the inviolability of state borders between two countries (1992 Agreement; 1997 Russian–Ukrainian Friendship Treaty). Moreover, the Russian Federation guaranteed the inviolability of the Ukrainian borders by signing the Memorandum on Security Assurances in connection with Ukraine's accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in 1994. It is important to remember that in all of its international agreements, Russia recognized the Crimea as part of Ukrainian territory. In other words, in 1991, Ukraine became an independent sovereign state with internationally-recognized borders - the claim that "Ukraine received its current territory from Russia" is not backed by any historical or international document.


  • Reported in: Issue 171
  • DATE OF PUBLICATION: 21/10/2019
  • Outlet language(s) Polish
  • Countries and/or Regions discussed in the disinformation: Ukraine, Russia
  • Keywords: Historical revisionism, Ukrainian disintegration, Ukrainian statehood
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Disinfo: Kyiv is sabotaging the peace settlement in Donbas

Kyiv does not want to fulfill all it’s obligations [ to the Minsk accords and the Steinmeier Formula] and, in particular, to withdraw their forces.


One of the pro-Kremlin messages about the Kyiv government sabotaging peace in the Donbas region. See previous cases about the Minsk agreements and the war in Ukraine. According to the daily report by the SMM OSCE, the Mission recorded fewer ceasefire violations in both the Donetsk and Luhansk regions, but those violations came from both sides. It is the same situation concerning the withdrawal of forces. The SMM OSCE observed weapons in violation of withdrawal lines in government-controlled areas of Donetsk region and in non-government-controlled areas of Luhansk region. Steinmeier's Formula calls for elections to be held in the separatist-held territories under Ukrainian legislation and the supervision of the OSCE. The withdrawal of forces is the other step that should be done before the planned elections. "There won't be any elections there if the troops are still there," said the president of Ukraine, Volodymyr Zelenskyy.

Disinfo: The West is aiming to destroy Russia

They will use them [ISIS] against us. The task of the West, America, Europe is to destroy our state. They have already tried to do this through the Chechen Republic, through Ossetia, Georgia, and Ukraine.


This is a conspiracy consistent with recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation narratives on Western belligerence towards Russia and it is also in line with the previous narratives accusing the US and other Western countries in supporting and using jihadist groups to advance geopolitical goals. The US-led military campaign in Syria has been fighting against ISIS and other Islamic terrorist groups along with the Global Coalition Against Daesh. Background and a similar case can be seen here and here. The policy of the US or the EU is not directed against Russia or any other country. See similar narratives here, here, and here.

Disinfo: The West is behind terrorist organisations in the Middle East

In fact, as long as the West, Europe and their policies exist, terrorist organisations will also exist, like Al-Qaeda in the past or these shaitans [devils] now. This is not just a gang or a group of bandits or some kind of Islamists. These are trained people who were provided with help from Western intelligence and who know very well what they should do.


No evidence given to support this claim and a recurring pro-Kremlin disinformation narrative that either the US or the West is behind the creation of ISIS/Daesh. This message is part of a broader conspiracy theory alleging that the United States and its NATO partners have established many terrorist organisations and control global terrorism. In reality, the US is committed to fighting terrorist organisations, such as Daesh and Al-Qaeda.

See similar messages about the US being behind terrorist organisations here, here and here.