In this section you will find a reading list encompassing a wide range of studies, articles and reports relating to the spread of pro-Kremlin disinformation.

Whether you want a general introduction, to learn about the Kremlin’s attempts to influence elections, or investigate how one single false message gets spread via a wide network of websites – this is the place to start.

How we collect the material

The selection of works keeps a balance between academic depth and reputability, but also a breadth of perspectives and interests beyond the academy. We have established quality control measures and the material selection was based on the five issue areas below.

Issue area 1
Threat actors

This area is dedicated to the activities of major threat actors, namely Russia and China and their aims, motives and capacities.

Issue area 2
Methods & Tools

This area captures the methods and tools deployed by threat actors to manipulate information: social media, narratives, emerging tech etc.

Issue area 3
Interference Areas

This area focuses on the socio-political areas targeted by threat actors: social cohesion, political processes, health, security and foreign policy.

Issue area 4

This issue area centres on the effects of FIMI (foreign information manipulations and interference) in terms of outcomes: cognitive impacts, social and political division, soft power projection etc.

Issue area 5

This area classifies the types of responses to FIMI (foreign information manipulations and interference) by a range of stakeholders: regulatory, proactive and self-regulatory, reactive responses and policy recommendations.


Threat Actors:
Methods & Tools:
Interference Areas:
176 results
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2023 | Journal of Information Warfare | Article
Destabilising a Regime to Support a Military Campaign, and Vice Versa
By: Jesse Burdick
View summary

An article on China’s use of information warfare to destabilise foreign regimes in the midst of a potential military or political crisis with democratic governments (drawing lessons from Japan’s experience during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05).

2023 | National Security and The Future | Article
Case Study of the Russian Disinformation Campaign During the War in Ukraine: Propaganda Narratives, Goals and Impacts
By: Josip Mandić, Darijo Klarić
View summary

A study of the strategic importance of disinformation and propaganda narratives of the Russian Ministry of Defence regarding foreign citizens fighting in Ukraine.

2023 | Journal of Information Warfare | Article
Combatting Privacy Information Warfare: A New Incident Response Framework
By: Sean McElroy, Lisa McKee
View summary

A study proposing new conceptual models and a methodology to guide the mitigation of privacy-related harms and tactics of sophisticated threat actors in information warfare.

2023 | Chatham House | Research paper
Russian Cyber and Information Warfare in Practice: Lessons Observed from the War on Ukraine
By: Keir Giles
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A review of Russia’s deployment of cyber and information operations against Ukraine assessing the effectiveness of Ukrainian responses and outlining potential lessons for other states.

2023 | Business Information Review | Article
(Dis)information Warfare: Risks for Businesses
By: Luke Tredinnick
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An analysis of the threat of information warfare for commercial organisations and the role of information professionals in mitigating them.

2023 | Cyber Security Policies and Strategies of the World's Leading States | Chapter
Cognitive Warfare: A Psychological Strategy to Manipulate Public Opinion
By: Szde Yu
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A study of cognitive warfare and psychological strategies seeking to gradually influence the targeted public’s beliefs, opinions and perceptions with an empirical focus on the China-Taiwan relationship.

2023 | Palgrave Macmillan | Book
Information Wars in the Baltic States: Russia’s Long Shadow
By: Janis Chakars, Indra Ekmanis
View summary

A study of Russian disinformation activities targeting Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, with a discussion of these countries’ experience in countering disinformation while building a media landscape supportive of democracy.

2023 | RAND Corporation | Report
The Rise of Generative AI and the Coming Era of Social Media Manipulation 3.0: Next-Generation Chinese Astroturfing and Coping with Ubiquitous AI
By: William Marcellino, Nathan Beauchamp-Mustafaga, Amanda Kerrigan, Lev Navarre Chao, Jackson Smith
View summary

A report on the implications of generative AI for information warfare, arguing that the technology poses a potential national security threat in terms of the risk of misuse by Russia, China and other adversaries in social media manipulation.

2023 | Journal of Information Warfare | Article
The Space of Influence: Developing a New Method to Conceptualise Foreign Information Manipulation and Interference on Social Media
By: Paul Magnus Hjertvik Buvarp
View summary

A study adapting ‘morphological’ theory to conceptualise social media disinformation threatening democratic processes along five parameters: spread strategy, information channelling, market targeting, presented source, and operational openness.

2023 | War in Ukraine. Media and Emotions | Article
Information and Information Technologies in the 2022 Russian-Ukrainian War
By: Adam R. Bartnicki, Elżbieta Kużelewska, Michał Ożóg
View summary

An analysis of Russian efforts to distort reality in the ongoing war against Ukraine and Ukraine’s effective countermeasures.

2023 | Comparative Strategy | Article
Russian Full Spectrum Conflicts and Information Warfare as Complex Adaptive Systems: The 2014 Crimean Case Study
By: Riccardo Allegri
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A study of asymmetrical information tactics through the lens of Complex Adaptive Systems that seeks to demonstrate how, by controlling the information flow during the Russian annexation of Crimea, Moscow applied complexity to the adversary on the one hand and stabilised the Crimean social system on the other.

2023 | RAND Corporation | Article
The Nightingale Versus the Bear: What Persuasion Research Reveals About Ukraine’s and Russia’s Messaging on the War
By: Alyssa Demus, Khrystyna Holynska, Krystyna Marcinek
View summary

A report exploring the comparative success of Russia’s and Ukraine’s information campaigins arguing that the popular discourse professing that Russia has lost the information war is oversimplified.

2023 | Journal of Interactive Advertising | Article
What Makes Disinformation Ads Engaging? A Case Study of Facebook Ads from the Russian Active Measures Campaign
By: Mirela Silva, Luiz Giovanini, Juliana Fernandes, Daniela Oliveira, Catia S. Silva
View summary

A study of Russia’s information campaigns via Facebook targeting the 2016 US presidential election, with interesting findings about which techniques are more effective than others.

2023 | PLOS ONE | Article
Moral Leniency towards Belief-Consistent Disinformation May Help Explain Its Spread on Social Media
By: Laura Joyner, Tom Buchanan, Orkun Yetkili
View summary

A study showing that people are more lenient towards spreading disinformation when it presents a message consistent with their existing beliefs.

2023 | Revista Latina de Comunicación Social | Article
Disinformation and Vaccines on Social Networks: Behavior of Hoaxes on Twitter
By: José Manuel Noguera-Vivo, María del Mar Grandío-Pérez, Guillermo Villar-Rodríguez, Alejandro Martín, David Camacho.
View summary

An analysis of antivaccine discourse on Twitter regarding COVID-19 focusing on its spreaders’ behavior.

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Cases in the EUvsDisinfo database focus on messages in the international information space that are identified as providing a partial, distorted, or false depiction of reality and spread key pro-Kremlin messages. This does not necessarily imply, however, that a given outlet is linked to the Kremlin or editorially pro-Kremlin, or that it has intentionally sought to disinform. EUvsDisinfo publications do not represent an official EU position, as the information and opinions expressed are based on media reporting and analysis of the East Stratcom Task Force.

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