In this section you will find a reading list encompassing a wide range of studies, articles and reports relating to the spread of pro-Kremlin disinformation.

Whether you want a general introduction, to learn about the Kremlin’s attempts to influence elections, or investigate how one single false message gets spread via a wide network of websites – this is the place to start.

How we collect the material

The selection of works keeps a balance between academic depth and reputability, but also a breadth of perspectives and interests beyond the academy. We have established quality control measures and the material selection was based on the five issue areas below.

Issue area 1
Threat actors

This area is dedicated to the activities of major threat actors, namely Russia and China and their aims, motives and capacities.

Issue area 2
Methods & Tools

This area captures the methods and tools deployed by threat actors to manipulate information: social media, narratives, emerging tech etc.

Issue area 3
Interference Areas

This area focuses on the socio-political areas targeted by threat actors: social cohesion, political processes, health, security and foreign policy.

Issue area 4

This issue area centres on the effects of FIMI (foreign information manipulations and interference) in terms of outcomes: cognitive impacts, social and political division, soft power projection etc.

Issue area 5

This area classifies the types of responses to FIMI (foreign information manipulations and interference) by a range of stakeholders: regulatory, proactive and self-regulatory, reactive responses and policy recommendations.


Threat Actors:
Methods & Tools:
Interference Areas:
149 results
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2023 | Journal of Information Warfare | Article
Using Junk News to Build and Agenda for Violence: Russian Propaganda Targeting American Right-Wing Extremists
By: Douglas S. Wilbur
View summary

An analysis of Russian attempts to use junk news targeting US right wing extremists, with a focus on uncovering the propagandists’ goals and motivations.

2023 | Social Media + Society | Article
Misinformation on Misinformation: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges
By: Sacha Altay, Manon Berriche
View summary

A study of alarmist narratives about online misinformation arguing that its prevalence and impact are overstated and identifying six misconceptions.

2023 | Humanities and Social Sciences Communications | Article
Populism, Cyberdemocracy and Disinformation: Analysis of the Social Media Strategies of the French Extreme right in the 2014 and 2019 European Elections
By: Uxía Carral, Jorge Tuñón, Carlos Elías
View summary

A qualitative analysis of the French extreme right’s social media strategy during the 2014 and 2019 European elections.

2023 | Political Psychology | Article
Does Analytic Thinking Insulate Against Pro-Kremlin Disinformation? Evidence From Ukraine
By: Aaron Erlich, Calvin Garner, Gordon Pennycook, David G. Rand
View summary

An investigation of susceptibility to pro-Kremlin disinformation from a cognitive-science perspective drawing on evidence from Ukraine.

2023 | Revista Latina de Comunicación Social | Article
Tackling Disinformation with Media Literacy: Analysis of Trends in the European Union
By: Cháro Sádaba, Ramón Salaverría
View summary

An analysis of the growing importance given by the European Union to media literacy in efforts to combat disinformation.

2023 | The International Journal of Press/Politics | Article
Is Pro-Kremlin Disinformation Effective? Evidence from Ukraine
By: Aaron Erlich, Calvin Garner
View summary

A paper exploring whether Ukraine residents can distinguish between pro-Kremlin disinformation and true statements; and which pro-Kremlin disinformation claims are more believable.

2022 | Center for Security Studies, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich | Chapter
Cultural Violence and Fragmentation on Social Media: Interventions and Countermeasures by Humans and Social Bots
By: Jasmin Haunschild, Marc-André Kaufhold, Christian Reuter
View summary

An analysis of different techniques used to cause social fragmentation and weaken trust in political institutions as well as a discussion of mechanisms to combat them.

2022 | Mass Communication and Society | Article
Russian Meddling in U.S. Elections: How News of Disinformation’s Impact Can Affect Trust in Electoral Outcomes and Satisfaction with Democracy
By: Andrew R. N. Ross, Cristian Vaccari, Andrew Chadwick
View summary

A study of the effects of the Russian IRA’s attempts to influence public perceptions during the 2016 US presidential election.

2022 | Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory | Article
Fake or Not? Automated Detection of COVID-19 Misinformation and Disinformation in Social Networks and Digital Media
By: Izzat Alsmadi, Natalie Manaeva Rice, Michael J. O’Brien
View summary

A review of automated techniques to detect and classify information campaigns relating to COVID-19.

2022 | Journal of Information Warfare | Article
Using Junk News to Build and Agenda for Violence: Russian Propaganda Targeting American Right-Wing Extremists
By: Douglas S. Wilbur
View summary

A study of the Russian IRA’s attempts to use fake news to foment political extremism in the United States.

2022 | News Media and Society | Article
Visual Disinformation in a Digital Age: A Literature Synthesis and Research Agenda
By: Teresa Weikmann, Sophie Lecheler
View summary

A study of the effects of visual disinformation material in democratic contexts.

2022 | ISD Global | Article
Monitoring Disinformation and Influence Campaigns in the 2022 French Elections: Lessons Learnt
By: Cécile Simmons, Cooper Gatewood, Zoé Fourel
View summary

A report on Russian (and other actors’) attempts to influence the 2022 French presidential and legislative elections.

2022 | Journal of European Integration | Article
Genesis and Evolution of EU Anti Disinformation Policy: Entrepreneurship and Political Opportunism in the Regulation of Digital Technology
By: Veronika Datzer, Luigi Lonardo
View summary

An analysis of efforts by the European Commission and the EEAS to regulate disinformation in terms of ‘political opportunism’.

2022 | Journal of Peace and War Studies | Article
Not Your Father’s Disinformation: Emerging Technology, Social Media Advances, and the Growth of Smart Disinformation
By: Mary Manjikian
View summary

A study of changing technologies used to enhance disinformation campaigns.

2022 | Center for Security Studies, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich | Chapter
A Threat to Democracies? An Overview of Theoretical Approaches and Empirical Measurements for Studying the Effects of Disinformation
By: Wolf J. Schünemann
View summary

A study cautioning against ‘securitising’ (or exaggerating) the effects of foreign disinformation campaigns.

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Cases in the EUvsDisinfo database focus on messages in the international information space that are identified as providing a partial, distorted, or false depiction of reality and spread key pro-Kremlin messages. This does not necessarily imply, however, that a given outlet is linked to the Kremlin or editorially pro-Kremlin, or that it has intentionally sought to disinform. EUvsDisinfo publications do not represent an official EU position, as the information and opinions expressed are based on media reporting and analysis of the East Stratcom Task Force.

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