In this section you will find a reading list encompassing a wide range of studies, articles and reports relating to the spread of pro-Kremlin disinformation.
Whether you want a general introduction, to learn about the Kremlin’s attempts to influence elections, or investigate how one single false message gets spread via a wide network of websites – this is the place to start.
How we collect the material
The selection of works keeps a balance between academic depth and reputability, but also a breadth of perspectives and interests beyond the academy. We have established quality control measures and the material selection was based on the five issue areas below.
This area is dedicated to the activities of major threat actors, namely Russia and China and their aims, motives and capacities.
This area captures the methods and tools deployed by threat actors to manipulate information: social media, narratives, emerging tech etc.
This area focuses on the socio-political areas targeted by threat actors: social cohesion, political processes, health, security and foreign policy.
This issue area centres on the effects of FIMI (foreign information manipulations and interference) in terms of outcomes: cognitive impacts, social and political division, soft power projection etc.
This area classifies the types of responses to FIMI (foreign information manipulations and interference) by a range of stakeholders: regulatory, proactive and self-regulatory, reactive responses and policy recommendations.
A report assessing the effectiveness of EU restrictions on Russian state-affiliated media after invasion of Ukraine and circumvention methods against them.
A report on German speaking extreme right-wing groups’ use of Telegram to circumvent platform regulations.
A study of how social media generates sentiments affecting perceptions among political partisan groups.
A study of the effetcts of Russian information campaigns on the minds of citizens in the Baltic States (with a focus on Lithuania).
A study of factors contributing to the credibility of disinformation in Taiwan, with a review of regulations and other approaches to combat it.
A report on emerging technological threat trends in AI and deepfakes, with some useful discussion of efforts to combat them.
A study of different kinds of misinformation approaches to combatting it: passive, reactive, pre-active, pro-active.
A report on Wikipedia’s vulnerabilities to systemic manipulation observed on social media.
A report on the propagation of polarising information regarding the 2022 elections in France.
A study proposing a theory of discursive community formation within digital media, with a focus on social psychology and linguistic factors.
This website collects vaulable reports but does not offer detailed analysis of its own.
A comprehensive and well-written report from a trustworthy source.
A study of the EU’s restrictions on RT and Sputnik and related French social media activity.
A study of the implications of the EU’s restrictions on RT and Sputnik and their attempts to circumvent the measures.
A detailed report on a pro-Putin social media campaign (detailing tactics and methods) on Facebook amid Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.