In this section you will find a reading list encompassing a wide range of studies, articles and reports relating to the spread of pro-Kremlin disinformation.

Whether you want a general introduction, to learn about the Kremlin’s attempts to influence elections, or investigate how one single false message gets spread via a wide network of websites – this is the place to start.

How we collect the material

The selection of works keeps a balance between academic depth and reputability, but also a breadth of perspectives and interests beyond the academy. We have established quality control measures and the material selection was based on the five issue areas below.

Issue area 1
Threat actors

This area is dedicated to the activities of major threat actors, namely Russia and China and their aims, motives and capacities.

Issue area 2
Methods & Tools

This area captures the methods and tools deployed by threat actors to manipulate information: social media, narratives, emerging tech etc.

Issue area 3
Interference Areas

This area focuses on the socio-political areas targeted by threat actors: social cohesion, political processes, health, security and foreign policy.

Issue area 4

This issue area centres on the effects of FIMI (foreign information manipulations and interference) in terms of outcomes: cognitive impacts, social and political division, soft power projection etc.

Issue area 5

This area classifies the types of responses to FIMI (foreign information manipulations and interference) by a range of stakeholders: regulatory, proactive and self-regulatory, reactive responses and policy recommendations.


Threat Actors:
Methods & Tools:
Interference Areas:
176 results
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2023 | Journalism (journal) | Article
Disinformation and Weaponized Communication: The Spread of Ideological Hate about the Macedonian Name in Greece
By: Minos-Athanasios Karyotakis
View summary

A study of ideological narratives disseminated by Russian actors through news stories in the context of Macedonia’s country name change between 2018 and 2019.

2023 | Revista Latina de Comunicación Social | Article
Tackling Disinformation with Media Literacy: Analysis of Trends in the European Union
By: Cháro Sádaba, Ramón Salaverría
View summary

An analysis of the growing importance given by the European Union to media literacy in efforts to combat disinformation.

2023 | Revista Latina de Comunicación Social | Article
Disinformation and Vaccines on Social Networks: Behavior of Hoaxes on Twitter
By: José Manuel Noguera-Vivo, María del Mar Grandío-Pérez, Guillermo Villar-Rodríguez, Alejandro Martín, David Camacho.
View summary

An analysis of antivaccine discourse on Twitter regarding COVID-19 focusing on its spreaders’ behavior.

2023 | Social Media + Society | Article
Misinformation on Misinformation: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges
By: Sacha Altay, Manon Berriche
View summary

A study of alarmist narratives about online misinformation arguing that its prevalence and impact are overstated and identifying six misconceptions.

2023 | Network and Distributed System Security (NDSS) Symposium 2023 | Article
Tactics, Threats and Targets: Modeling Disinformation and its Mitigation
By: Mirza Shujaat, Labeeba Begum, Liang Niu, Sarah Pardo, Azza Abouzied, Paolo Papotti, Christina Popper
View summary

A study of efforts to combat disinformation across domains offering a cybersecurity-inspired framework to characterize disinformation threats.

2023 | Journal of Public Policy & Marketing | Article
Disinformation and Echo Chambers: How Disinformation Circulates on Social Media Through Identity-Driven Controversies
By: Carlos Diaz Ruiz, Tomas Nilsson
View summary

An analysis of how disinformation circulates on social media as adversarial narratives embedded in identity-driven controversies, with a case study on the “Flat Earth” echo chamber on YouTube.

2023 | Humanities and Social Sciences Communications | Article
Populism, Cyberdemocracy and Disinformation: Analysis of the Social Media Strategies of the French Extreme right in the 2014 and 2019 European Elections
By: Uxía Carral, Jorge Tuñón, Carlos Elías
View summary

A qualitative analysis of the French extreme right’s social media strategy during the 2014 and 2019 European elections.

2023 | Political Psychology | Article
Does Analytic Thinking Insulate Against Pro-Kremlin Disinformation? Evidence From Ukraine
By: Aaron Erlich, Calvin Garner, Gordon Pennycook, David G. Rand
View summary

An investigation of susceptibility to pro-Kremlin disinformation from a cognitive-science perspective drawing on evidence from Ukraine.

2023 | Journal of Information Warfare | Article
Using Junk News to Build and Agenda for Violence: Russian Propaganda Targeting American Right-Wing Extremists
By: Douglas S. Wilbur
View summary

An analysis of Russian attempts to use junk news targeting US right wing extremists, with a focus on uncovering the propagandists’ goals and motivations.

2023 | ISD Global | Report
Inside the Digital Labyrinth: Right-Wing Extremist Strategies of Decentralisation on the Internet & Possible Countermeasures
By: Dominik Hammer, Lea Gerster, Christian Schwieter
View summary

A report on the use by American right-wing extremists of a “multi-platform” strategy to spread their ideological messages, including some discussion of regulatory and other responses.

2023 | Journal of Asian and African Studies | Article
COVID and Cognitive Warfare in Taiwan
By: Max Tsung-Chi Yu, Karl Ho
View summary

A study of the People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) coordinated cognitive warfare operations during the COVID pandemic in Taiwan.

2023 | Journal of Information Warfare | Article
The Evolution of Information Warfare in Ukraine: 2014-2022
By: Brett Van Niekerk
View summary

This paper analyses information warfare in the Russo-Ukraine war, contrasting it with prior operations to illustrate the evolution, limitations, and possible future of information warfare during a kinetic conflict.

2023 | Journal of Strategic Security | Article
Modern Cognitive Operations and Hybrid Warfare
By: Yuriy Danyk, Chad M. Briggs
View summary

A high-level review of research on cognitive conflict and its consequences for geopolitics.

2023 | Journal of Interactive Advertising | Article
What Makes Disinformation Ads Engaging? A Case Study of Facebook Ads from the Russian Active Measures Campaign
By: Mirela Silva, Luiz Giovanini, Juliana Fernandes, Daniela Oliveira, Catia S. Silva
View summary

A study of Russia’s information campaigns via Facebook targeting the 2016 US presidential election, with interesting findings about which techniques are more effective than others.

2023 | The International Journal of Press/Politics | Article
Is Pro-Kremlin Disinformation Effective? Evidence from Ukraine
By: Aaron Erlich, Calvin Garner
View summary

A paper exploring whether Ukraine residents can distinguish between pro-Kremlin disinformation and true statements; and which pro-Kremlin disinformation claims are more believable.

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Cases in the EUvsDisinfo database focus on messages in the international information space that are identified as providing a partial, distorted, or false depiction of reality and spread key pro-Kremlin messages. This does not necessarily imply, however, that a given outlet is linked to the Kremlin or editorially pro-Kremlin, or that it has intentionally sought to disinform. EUvsDisinfo publications do not represent an official EU position, as the information and opinions expressed are based on media reporting and analysis of the East Stratcom Task Force.

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