In this section you will find a reading list encompassing a wide range of studies, articles and reports relating to the spread of pro-Kremlin disinformation.

Whether you want a general introduction, to learn about the Kremlin’s attempts to influence elections, or investigate how one single false message gets spread via a wide network of websites – this is the place to start.

How we collect the material

The selection of works keeps a balance between academic depth and reputability, but also a breadth of perspectives and interests beyond the academy. We have established quality control measures and the material selection was based on the five issue areas below.

Issue area 1
Threat actors

This area is dedicated to the activities of major threat actors, namely Russia and China and their aims, motives and capacities.

Issue area 2
Methods & Tools

This area captures the methods and tools deployed by threat actors to manipulate information: social media, narratives, emerging tech etc.

Issue area 3
Interference Areas

This area focuses on the socio-political areas targeted by threat actors: social cohesion, political processes, health, security and foreign policy.

Issue area 4

This issue area centres on the effects of FIMI (foreign information manipulations and interference) in terms of outcomes: cognitive impacts, social and political division, soft power projection etc.

Issue area 5

This area classifies the types of responses to FIMI (foreign information manipulations and interference) by a range of stakeholders: regulatory, proactive and self-regulatory, reactive responses and policy recommendations.


Threat Actors:
Methods & Tools:
Interference Areas:
176 results
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2024 | Defense & Security Analysis | Article
Artificial Intelligence and Information Warfare in Major Power States: How the US, China, and Russia Are Using Artificial Intelligence in Their Information Warfare and Influence Operations
By: Hunter, Lance Y.,Craig D. Albert; Josh Rutland; Kristen Topping; Christopher Hennigan
View summary

A paper examining how the United States, China, and Russia are incorporating AI in their information warfare strategies and tactics and the implications of this trend for international security.

2024 | RAND Corporation | Report
The Future of Indo-Pacific Information Warfare: Challenges and Prospects from the Rise of AI
By: Hanson, Russell; Adam R. Grissom; Christopher A. Mouton
View summary

A study of the implications of AI-powered information warfare in the Indo-Pacific for regional and global security, inclluding recommendations on near term responses.

2024 | Journal of Information Warfare | Article
Hybrid Cyber Threats: Lithuanian Context
By: Štitilis, Darius; Marius Laurinaitis; Matt Warren
View summary

An analysis of hybrid cyber threats within the Lithuanian context, focusing on the examination of national strategies to mitigate them and identifying potential areas for improvement.

2024 | Journal of Information Warfare | Article
‘No-One Likes a Cry Baby’: The Effectiveness of Victimization Narratives in External Information Operations
By: Ackerman, Gary; Annie Sundelson; Anna Wetzel
View summary

A study investigating the extent to which victimisation narratives in state information campaigns are effective in influencing external audiences, with a focus on Russia and China.

2024 | AI & Society | Article
Losing the Information War to Adversarial AI
By: Mantello, Peter; Manh-Tung Ho
View summary

A short, pesssimistic review of the implications of conversational AI (eg, ’empathy bots’) on information warfare.

2023 | IEEE | Article
Sharpening the Spear: China’s Information Warfare Lessons from Ukraine
By: Beach-Westmoreland, Nate
View summary

An analysis of the lessons about information warfare that the Chinese government is likely to draw from Russia war in Ukraine as viewed through the lens of US proxy conflicts.

2023 | The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies | Report
Cognitive Warfare as Part of Society Never-Ending Battle for Minds
By: Burda, Robin
View summary

A study of measures to combat Russian informationa operations targeting Ukraine and the Czech Republic covering three levels: government, media, civil society.

2023 | RAND Corporation | Report
The Rise of Generative AI and the Coming Era of Social Media Manipulation 3.0: Next-Generation Chinese Astroturfing and Coping with Ubiquitous AI
By: William Marcellino, Nathan Beauchamp-Mustafaga, Amanda Kerrigan, Lev Navarre Chao, Jackson Smith
View summary

A report on the implications of generative AI for information warfare, arguing that the technology poses a potential national security threat in terms of the risk of misuse by Russia, China and other adversaries in social media manipulation.

2023 | Journal of Information Warfare | Article
Destabilising a Regime to Support a Military Campaign, and Vice Versa
By: Jesse Burdick
View summary

An article on China’s use of information warfare to destabilise foreign regimes in the midst of a potential military or political crisis with democratic governments (drawing lessons from Japan’s experience during the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05).

2023 | Journal of Information Warfare | Article
The Space of Influence: Developing a New Method to Conceptualise Foreign Information Manipulation and Interference on Social Media
By: Paul Magnus Hjertvik Buvarp
View summary

A study adapting ‘morphological’ theory to conceptualise social media disinformation threatening democratic processes along five parameters: spread strategy, information channelling, market targeting, presented source, and operational openness.

2023 | RAND Corporation | Article
The Nightingale Versus the Bear: What Persuasion Research Reveals About Ukraine’s and Russia’s Messaging on the War
By: Alyssa Demus, Khrystyna Holynska, Krystyna Marcinek
View summary

A report exploring the comparative success of Russia’s and Ukraine’s information campaigins arguing that the popular discourse professing that Russia has lost the information war is oversimplified.

2023 | Great Power Cyber Competition: Competing and Winning in the Information Environment | Chapter
Toward a Whole-of-Society Framework for Countering Disinformation
By: JD Maddox, Casi Gentzel, Adela Levis
View summary

A study of measures to combat disinformation, including resilience, regulations, public diplomacy, strategic signalling and counter messaging.

2023 | The Cyber Defense Review (Army Cyber Institute) | Article
Weaponizing Words: Using Technology to Proliferate Information Warfare
By: Craig Douglas Albert, Samantha Mullaney, Joseph Huitt, Lance Y. Hunter, Lydia Snider
View summary

A review of ways that the United States could improve its capacity in information warfare against China, with policy recommendations.

2023 | Cyber Security Policies and Strategies of the World's Leading States | Chapter
Cognitive Warfare: A Psychological Strategy to Manipulate Public Opinion
By: Szde Yu
View summary

A study of cognitive warfare and psychological strategies seeking to gradually influence the targeted public’s beliefs, opinions and perceptions with an empirical focus on the China-Taiwan relationship.

2023 | Comparative Strategy | Article
Russian Full Spectrum Conflicts and Information Warfare as Complex Adaptive Systems: The 2014 Crimean Case Study
By: Riccardo Allegri
View summary

A study of asymmetrical information tactics through the lens of Complex Adaptive Systems that seeks to demonstrate how, by controlling the information flow during the Russian annexation of Crimea, Moscow applied complexity to the adversary on the one hand and stabilised the Crimean social system on the other.

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Cases in the EUvsDisinfo database focus on messages in the international information space that are identified as providing a partial, distorted, or false depiction of reality and spread key pro-Kremlin messages. This does not necessarily imply, however, that a given outlet is linked to the Kremlin or editorially pro-Kremlin, or that it has intentionally sought to disinform. EUvsDisinfo publications do not represent an official EU position, as the information and opinions expressed are based on media reporting and analysis of the East Stratcom Task Force.

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