STUDIES AND REPORTS

In this section you will find a reading list encompassing a wide range of studies, articles and reports relating to the spread of pro-Kremlin disinformation. Whether you want a general introduction, to learn about the Kremlin’s attempts to influence elections or investigate how one single false message gets spread via a wide network of websites – this is the place to start.

Topic Introductions

Start your research here. Texts in this section provide a general overview of the key concepts and developments in the field of information warfare, with an emphasis on the anatomy and historical background of the Kremlin's disinformation campaigns and influence operations against the West.

The Kremlin Playbook 2
By Heather A. Conley, Donatienne Ruy, Ruslan Stefanov, and Martin Vladimirov, CSIS (2019, report)

Russia’s Hostile Measures in Europe: Understanding the Threat
By Raphael S. Cohen and Andrew Radin, RAND (2019, report)

Polarisation and the Use of Technology in Political Campaigns and Communication
By Lisa Maria Neudert and Nahema Marchal, report commissioned for the European Parliament (2019, report)

Computational Propaganda: Political Parties, Politicians, and Political Manipulation on Social Media
By Samuel C. Woolley and Philip N. Howard (2018, book

LikeWar: The Weaponization of Social Media
By Peter W. Singer and Emerson Brooking (2018, book)

The Disinformation Order: Disruptive Communication and the Decline of Democratic Institutions
By W. Lance Bennett and Steven Livingston, European Journal of Communication (2018, study)

Countering Russian Information Operations in the Age of Social Media
by Keir Giles, Council Foreign Relations (2017, article)

Disinformation: A Primer in Russian Active Measures and Influence Campaigns
by Clint Watts (.pdf), Statement Prepared for the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence hearing (2017)

Winning the Information War Redux
by Edward Lucas and Peter Pomerantsev, CEPA (2017, report)

Russian Influence Campaigns against the West: From the Cold War to Putin
by Kevin N. McCauley (2016, book)

The Kremlin Playbook
By Heather A. Conley, James Mina, Martin Vladimirov and Ruslan Stefanov (2016, report) 

Fog of Falsehood: Russian Strategy of Deception and the Conflict in Ukraine
by Katri Pynnöniemi and András Rácz, Finnish Institute of International Affairs (2016, report)

The Next Phase of Russian Information Warfare
by Keir Giles, NATO StratCom Centre of Excellence (2016, report)

Handbook of Russian Information Warfare
by Keir Giles, NATO Defense College (2016, report)

Russia’s Hybrid Warfare In The East: Using The Information Sphere As Integral To Hybrid Warfare
by Sascha-Dominik Oliver Vladimir Bachmann and Hakan Gunnariusson (2015, study)

Information at War: From China’s Three Warfares to NATO’s Narratives
by Laura Jackson, Timothy Thomas, Mark Laity and Ben Nimmo, Legatum Institute (2015, report)

The Menace of Unreality: How the Kremlin Weaponizes Information, Culture and Money
by Peter Pomerantsev and Michael Weiss, The Interpreter, a project of the Institute of Modern Russia (2014, report)

Disinformation Tools & Tactics

How does disinformation spread? Today's disinfo operations are increasingly sophisticated: it’s no longer just about bots and trolls, but about hacking the attention economy to achieve virality and laundering disinformation via burner accounts to obscure its origins. This section covers the variety of different tools, mechanisms, and tactics that disinformation actors use to plant, amplify, and ultimately legitimise false stories in the mainstream.

Operation Secondary Infektion: Suspected Russian Intelligence Operation
By DFR Lab (2019, report)

The Surkov Leaks: The Inner Workings of Russia’s Hybrid War in Ukraine
By Alya Shandra and Robert Seely, RUSI (2019, report)

Warring Songs: Information Operations in the Digital Age
By Alex Krasodomski-Jones, Josh Smith, Elliot Jones, Ellen Judson, and Carl Miller, DEMOS (2019, report)

Trends in Online Foreign Influence Efforts
By Diego A. Martin and Jacob N. Shapiro, Empirical Studies of Conflict, Princeton University (2019, study)

Trends and Developments in the Malicious Use of Social Media
By Jakob Willemo, NATO Stratcom CoE (2019, report)

The Black Market for Social Media Manipulation
By NATO Stratcom CoE (2019, report)

The Attention Economy: Markets of Attention, Misinformation and Manipulation
By Vincent F. Fredricks and Mads Vestergaard (2019, book chapter)

Cognitive Attraction and Online Misinformation
By Alberto Acerbi, Palgrave Communications 5 (2019, study)

Russia’s Active Measures Architecture: Task and Purpose
By Clint Watts, Alliance for Securing Democracy (2018, analysis)

The Tactics & Tropes of the Internet Research Agency
By New Knowledge (2018, report)

Anatomy of a Russian ‘Troll Factory’ News Site
By Aric Toler, Bellingcat (2018, analysis)

Troll Factories: The Internet Research Agency and State-Sponsored Agenda Building
By Darren L. Linvill and Patrick L.Warren, Clemson University (2018, study)

State, Media and Civil Society in the Information Warfare over Ukraine: Citizen Curators of Digital Disinformation
By Yevgeniy Golovchenko, Mareike Hartmann, and Rebecca Adler-Nissen, International Affairs 94.5 (2018, study)

The Dissemination of Russian-Sourced News in Africa
By Kevin Limonier, IRSEM (2018, study)

Ecosystem or Echo-System? Exploring Content Sharing across Alternative Media Domains
By Kate Starbird, Ahmer Arif, Tom Wilson, Katherine Van Koevering, Katya Yefimova and Daniel Scarnecchia, University of Washington and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (2018, study)

Information Wars: A Window into the Alternative Media Ecosystem
By Kate Starbird (2017, essay)

Media Manipulation and Disinformation Online
By Alice Marwick and Rebecca Lewis, Data & Society Research Institute (2017, report)

Information Warfare in the Internet
By the Centre for International Relations Foundation (2017, report)

Why Twitter Is the Best Social Media Platform for Disinformation
By Thomas Rid, VICE Motherboard (2017, analysis) 

Putin’s Cyberwar: Russia’s Statecraft in the Fifth Domain
By Andrew Foxall, Russia Studies Centre (2016, report)

Internet Trolling as a Hybrid Warfare Tool: The Case of Latvia
By NATO Stratcom CoE (2016, report)

Social Bots Distort the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election Online Discussion
By Alessandro Bessi and Emilio Ferrara, First Monday 21.11 (2016, study)

Putin’s Useful Idiots: Britain’s Left, Right and Russia
By Andrew Foxall, The Henry Jackson Society (2016, report)

Agents of the Russian World: Proxy Groups in the Contested Neighbourhood
By Orysia Lutsevych, Chatham House (2016, report)

Anti-Belarus Disinformation in Russian Media: Trends, Features, Countermeasures
By Andrei Yeliseyeu and Veranika Laputska, EAST Media Review (2016, report)

Distract, Deceive, Destroy: Putin at War in Syria
By Maksymilian Czuperski, John Herbst, Eliot Higgins, Frederic Hof, and Ben Nimmo, Atlantic Council (2016, report)

The Kremlin Playbook 2
By Heather A. Conley, Donatienne Ruy, Ruslan Stefanov, and Martin Vladimirov, CSIS (2019, report)

Russia’s Hostile Measures in Europe: Understanding the Threat
By Raphael S. Cohen and Andrew Radin, RAND (2019, report)

Polarisation and the Use of Technology in Political Campaigns and Communication
By Lisa Maria Neudert and Nahema Marchal, report commissioned for the European Parliament (2019, report)

Computational Propaganda: Political Parties, Politicians, and Political Manipulation on Social Media
By Samuel C. Woolley and Philip N. Howard (2018, book

LikeWar: The Weaponization of Social Media
By Peter W. Singer and Emerson Brooking (2018, book)

The Disinformation Order: Disruptive Communication and the Decline of Democratic Institutions
By W. Lance Bennett and Steven Livingston, European Journal of Communication (2018, study)

Countering Russian Information Operations in the Age of Social Media
by Keir Giles, Council Foreign Relations (2017, article)

Disinformation: A Primer in Russian Active Measures and Influence Campaigns
by Clint Watts (.pdf), Statement Prepared for the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence hearing (2017)

Winning the Information War Redux
by Edward Lucas and Peter Pomerantsev, CEPA (2017, report)

Russian Influence Campaigns against the West: From the Cold War to Putin
by Kevin N. McCauley (2016, book)

The Kremlin Playbook
By Heather A. Conley, James Mina, Martin Vladimirov and Ruslan Stefanov (2016, report) 

Fog of Falsehood: Russian Strategy of Deception and the Conflict in Ukraine
by Katri Pynnöniemi and András Rácz, Finnish Institute of International Affairs (2016, report)

The Next Phase of Russian Information Warfare
by Keir Giles, NATO StratCom Centre of Excellence (2016, report)

Handbook of Russian Information Warfare
by Keir Giles, NATO Defense College (2016, report)

Russia’s Hybrid Warfare In The East: Using The Information Sphere As Integral To Hybrid Warfare
by Sascha-Dominik Oliver Vladimir Bachmann and Hakan Gunnariusson (2015, study)

Information at War: From China’s Three Warfares to NATO’s Narratives
by Laura Jackson, Timothy Thomas, Mark Laity and Ben Nimmo, Legatum Institute (2015, report)

The Menace of Unreality: How the Kremlin Weaponizes Information, Culture and Money
by Peter Pomerantsev and Michael Weiss, The Interpreter, a project of the Institute of Modern Russia (2014, report)

RT, Sputnik, and the Russian Media Ecosystem

Russian state-funded outlets RT and Sputnik are notorious for being the official figureheads of the Kremlin’s international disinformation campaign. RT has a network of eight TV channels in six languages, with over a billion views on YouTube, while Sputnik operates “news” websites in 30 languages. This section is devoted to research about the role of these two outlets in the Kremlin’s disinformation strategy, and situates them in the broader context of Russia’s media ecosystem and political agenda.

Understanding Russian Communication Strategy
By Stefan Meister (editor), Institut für Auslandbeziehungen (2019, report)

Between Overt Disinformation and Covert Practice: The Russian Special Services’ Game
By Jolanta Darczewska, Centre for Eastern Studies (2019, report)

Weaponising News: RT, Sputnik and Targeted Disinformation
By Gordon Ramsay and Sam Robertshaw, The Policy Institute, King’s College London (2018, study)

Russia Today’s Strategy and Effectiveness on YouTube
By Robert W. Orttung and Elizabeth Nelson (2018, study)

Fortress Russia: Conspiracy Theories in Post-Soviet Russia
By Ilya Yablokov (2018, book)

Conspiracist Propaganda: How Russia Promotes Anti-Establishment Sentiment Online
By Kohei Watanabe, Waseda University (2018, study)

Mapping Russian Media Network: Media’s Role in Russian Foreign Policy and Decision-making
By Vera Zakem, Paul Saunders, Umida Hashimova, and P. Kathleen Hammerberg, CNA (2018, report)

After a Week of Russian Propaganda, I Was Questioning Everything
By Elizabeth Flock, PBS (2018, essay)

The Kremlin’s Platform for ‘Useful Idiots’ in the West: An Overview of RT’s Editorial Strategy and Evidence of Impact
By Monika Richter, European Values Think-Tank (2017, report)

Russian Disinformation Technology
By John Pollock, MIT Technology Review (2017, essay)

Sputnik: Propaganda in a New Orbit
By Ben Nimmo, CEPA (2016, report)

Conspiracy Theories as a Russian Public Diplomacy Tool: The Case of Russia Today
By Ilya Yablokov, Journal of Politics 35.4 (2015, study)

How the Media Became One of Putin’s Most Powerful Weapons
By Jill Dougherty, The Atlantic (2015, essay)

Disinformation: Former Spy Chief Reveals Secret Strategies for Undermining Freedom, Attacking Religion, and Promoting Terrorism
By Ion Mihai Pacepa and Ronald J. Rychlak (2013, book)

What Is Russia Today?
By Julia Ioffe, Columbia Journalism Review (2010, essay)

The Invention of Russia: The Journey from Gorbachev’s Freedom to Putin’s War
By Arkady Ostrovsky (2001, book)

Electoral Interference

Russia has attempted to interfere in numerous electoral processes around the world in recent years. This section lists essential research and analysis about the Kremlin's election meddling efforts, including case studies about its interference in the 2016 US election, the 2017 French and German elections, and the Brexit referendum, among others.

Democratic Resilience: A Comparative Review of Russian Interference in Democratic Elections and Lessons Learned for Securing Future Elections
By James Lamond and Talia Dessel, Center for American Progress (2019, report)

Foreign Interference in Ukraine’s Election
By Ukraine Election Task Force, Atlantic Council (2019, report)

Internet Research Agency Twitter Activity Predicted 2016 Election Polls
By Damian J. Ruck, Natalie M. Rice, Joshua Borycz, and R. Alexander Bentley, First Monday (2019, study)

The “Macron Leaks” Operation: A Post-Mortem
By Jean-Baptiste Jeangène Vilmer, Atlantic Council and IRSEM (2019, report)

Slovak Presidential Election Followed Through Facebook Disinformation Channels
By Miroslava Sawiris, GLOBSEC Policy Institute (2019, analysis)

Social Media, Sentiment and Public Opinions: Evidence from #Brexit and #USElection
By Yuriy Gorodnichenko, Tho Pham, and Oleksandr Talavera (2018, study)

Smearing Sweden: International Influence Campaigns in the 2018 Swedish Election
By Chloe Colliver, Peter Pomerantsev, Anne Applebaum, and Jonathan Birdwell, Institute for Strategic Dialogue (2018, report)

Influence of Russian Disinformation Operations: Specific Examples in Data and Numbers
By Veronika Špálková, European Values Center for Security Policy (2018, report)

The Role of the Kremlin’s Influence and Disinformation in the Czech Presidential Elections
by Jakub Janda, Veronika Víchová, and Markéta Krejčí, European Values Center for Security Policy (2018, report)

Russian Influence in Political Campaigns
By the Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee of the UK Parliament (2018, report)

In Italy, Fake News Helps Populists and Far-Right Triumph
By Filippo Trevisan, The Conversation (2018, analysis)

Why We’re Sharing 3 Million Russian Troll Tweets
By Oliver Roeder, FiveThirtyEight (2018, analysis)

How Russia Helped Swing the Election for Trump
By Jane Mayer, The New Yorker (2018, essay)

Trump, Putin, and the New Cold War
by Evan Osnos, David Remnick, and Joshua Yaffa, The New Yorker (2017, essay)

#ElectionWatch: Scottish Vote, Pro-Kremlin Trolls
By DFR Lab (2017, analysis)

Does Russia Interfere in Czech, Austrian and Hungarian Elections?
by Lóránt Győri, Péter Krekó, Jakub Janda and Bernhard Weidinger, Political Capital (2017, report)

Russian Meddling Machine Sets Sights on Catalonia
By David Aladente, El Pais (2017, analysis)

The ‘Combination’: An Instrument in Russia’s Information War in Catalonia
By Mira Milosevich-Juaristi, Real Instituto Elcano (2017, analysis)

#ElectionWatch: Russia and Referendums in Catalonia?
By DFR Lab (2017, analysis)

The Impact of Russian Interference on Germany’s 2017 Elections
by Constanze Stelzenmüller, Brookings (2017, report)

Make Germany Great Again: Kremlin, Alt-Right and International Influences in the 2017 German Elections
By Anne Applebaum, Peter Pomerantsev, Melanie Smith and Chloe Colliver, Institute for Strategic Dialogue (2017, report) 

Junk News and Bots During the German Parliamentary Election: What Are German Voters Sharing over Twitter?
By Lisa-Maria Neudert, Bence Kollanyi, and Philip N. Howard, Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford (2017, study)

Germany Confronts Russian Hybrid Warfare
by Kaan Sahin, Carnegie Europe (2017, essay)

Trolling for Trump: How Russia Is Trying to Destroy Our Democracy
by Andrew Weisburd, Clint Watts, and JM Berger, War on the Rocks (2016, analysis)

The Reach and Impact of Disinformation

Empirically measuring the impact of disinformation is methodologically challenging, and research on this topic therefore remains limited. This section lists a preliminary selection of studies and analyses that have sought to evaluate the effects (or lack thereof) of disinformation.

Measuring the Effect of Russian Internet Research Agency Information Operations in Online Conversations
By John D. Gallacher and Marc W. Heerdink, NATO Stratcom CoE (2019, study)

Internet Research Agency Twitter Activity Predicted 2016 Election Polls
By Damian J. Ruck, Natalie M. Rice, Joshua Borycz, and R. Alexander Bentley, First Monday (2019, study)

Ideological Asymmetry in the Reach of Pro-Russian Digital Disinformation to United States Audiences
By Frederik Hjorth and Rebecca Adler-Nissen, Journal of Communication 69.2 (2019, study)

The Human Consequences of Computational Propaganda
By Katie Joseff and Samuel Woolley (editors), Institute for the Future (2019, study)

The Elusive Backfire Effect: Mass Attitudes’ Steadfast Factual Adherence
By Thomas Wood and Ethan Porter, Political Behavior 41.1 (2019, study)

Disinformation and Propaganda – Impact on the Functioning of the Rule of Law in the EU and Its Member States
Commissioned by the European Parliament (2019, report)

The Spread of True and False News Online
By Soroush Vosoughi, Deb Roy, and Sinan Aral, Science 359.6380 (2018, study)

Measuring the reach of “fake news” and online disinformation in Europe
by Richard Fletcher, Alessio Cornia, Lucas Graves, and Rasmus Kleis Nielsen, Reuters Institute, University of Oxford (2018, report)

Mixed messages and Signs of Hope from Central and Eastern Europe
by GLOBSEC Trends 2017 (2017, report)

NATO Publics Blame Russia for Ukrainian Crisis, but Reluctant to Provide Military Aid
by Katie Simmons, Bruce Stokes and Jacob Poushter, Pew Research Centre (2015, report)

Promoting Populism & Political Extremism

Russia’s disinformation offensive against the West often goes hand-in-hand with support for populist and extremist political movements. In turn, these actors increasingly derive inspiration from the Kremlin and support its political agenda, ultimately acting as proxies for the Kremlin’s subversive influence. This section brings you research that exposes this symbiosis.

Russia is Co-opting Angry Young Men
By Michael Carpenter, The Atlantic (2018, essay)

The Rise of Kremlin-Friendly Populism in the Netherlands
By Marcel van Herpen, The Cicero Foundation (2018, report)

The French Far Right in Russia’s Orbit
By Nicolas Lebourg, Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Relations (2018, report)

Russia, Euroskeptic Parties, and Italian Elections
By Giovanna De Maio, German Marshall Fund (2018, report)

#ElectionWatch: Italian Putinism
By DFR Lab (2018, analysis)

Russia and the Western Far Right: Tango Noir
By Anton Shekhovtsov (2017, book)

The Kremlin’s Trojan Horses 2.0
By the Atlantic Council (2017, report)

Make Germany Great Again
By Anne Applebaum, Peter Pomerantsev, Melanie Smith and Chloe Colliver, Institute for Strategic Dialogue (2017, report) 

The Activity of Pro-Russian Extremist Groups in Central-Eastern Europe
By Political Capital (2017, project)

Putin’s Friends in Europe
By Fredrik Wesslau, European Council on Foreign Relations (2016, analysis)

The World According to Europe’s Insurgent Parties: Putin, Migration and People Power
By Susi Dennison and Dina Pardijs, European Council on Foreign Relations (2016, report)

Russia and the European Far Left
By Péter Krekó and Lóránt Győri, Integrity Initiative (2016, report)

Don’t Ignore the Left! Connections between Europe’s Radical Left and Russia
By Péter Krekó and Lóránt Győri, openDemocracy (2016, analysis)

An Unholy Alliance: The European Far Right and Putin’s Russia
By Antonis Klapsis, Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies (2015, report)

Russia’s Soft Power Offensive

The Kremlin’s disinformation operations are just one part of a broader “soft power” offensive designed to undermine other countries for its own political gain and to restore Russia’s great power status. This section looks at the range of tools and methods that the Kremlin deploys in pursuit of this strategy.

Beyond the Ballot: How the Kremlin Works to Undermine the US Justice System
By Suzanne Spaulding, Devi Nair, and Arthur Nelson, Center for Strategic and International Studies (2019, report)

Russia’s Game in the Balkans
By Paul Stronski and Annie Himes, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (2019, report)

Russia’s Hybrid Warfare in the Western Balkans
By Grzegorz Kuczyński, Warsaw Institute (2019, report)

Hybrid Analytica: Pro-Kremlin Expert Propaganda in Moscow, Europe and the U.S.
By Kateryna Smagliy, Institute of Modern Russia (2018, report)

Russia: Playing a Geopolitical Game in Latin America
By Julia Gurganus, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (2018, analysis)

Russian Soft Power in France: Assessing Moscow’s Cultural and Business Para-diplomacy
By Marlene Laruelle, Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Relations (2018, report)

Raising Awareness of Russian Soft Power in Central Europe
By the Prague Security Studies Institute (2017, report)

Threats of Russian Hard and Soft Power in Georgia
By the European Initiative – Liberal Academy Tbilisi (2016, report)

Eyes Wide Shut: Russian Soft Power Gaining Strength in Serbia
By the Centre for Euro-Atlantic Studies (2016, report)

The Kremlin’s Sleight of Hand: Russia’s Soft Power Offensive in the UK
By Andrew Foxall, The Henry Jackson Society (2015, report)

Beyond Crimea: The New Russian Empire
By Agnia Grigas (2016, book)

Russia’s Coercive Diplomacy: Energy, Cyber, and Maritime Policy as New Sources of Power
By Ryan C. Maness and Brandon Valeriano (2015, book)

Russia’s Orthodox Soft Power
By Nicolai N. Petro, Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Relations (2015, report)

 

Policy Recommendations

This section contains a wide array of reports outlining best practices and recommendations for countering disinformation, foreign electoral interference, and other forms of manipulation and subversion, aimed at governments as well as civil society.

Russia-Proofing Your Election Against Foreign Interference
By Marcus Kolga, Jakub Janda, and Nathalie Vogel, Macdonald Laurier Institute (2019, report)

Democratic Defense Against Disinformation 2.0
By Alina Polyakova and Daniel Fried, Atlantic Council (2019, report)

European Policy Blueprint for Countering Authoritarian Interference in Democracies
By Kristine Berzina, Nad’a Kovalcikova, David Salvo, Etienne Soula (2019, report)

Combating Disinformation and Foreign Interference in Democracies: Lessons from Europe
By Margaret L. Taylor, Brookings (2019, report)

Government Responses to Malicious Use of Social Media
By Samantha Bradshaw, Lisa-Maria Neudert, Philip N. Howard, NATO Stratcom CoE and Oxford Internet Institute (2019, report)

Stemming the Virus: Understanding and Responding to the Threat of Russian Disinformation
By Marcus Kolga, Macdonald-Laurier Institute (2019, report)

Hybrid Threats: A Strategic Communications Perspective
By NATO Stratcom CoE (2019, report)

Political Subversion in the Age of Social Media
By Edward H. Christie, Wilfried Martens Centre (2018, report)

Successfully Countering Russian Electoral Interference
By Heather A. Conley, Center for Strategic and International Studies (2018, report)

Countering Russian Social Media Influence
By Elizabeth Bodine-Baron, Todd C. Helmus, Andrew Radin, and Elina Treyger, RAND (2018, report)

Taming the Hydra: How to Resist Kremlin’s Information Aggression?
By Ukraine World (2018, report)

Addressing Australia’s Vulnerability to Weaponised Narratives
By Chris Zappone and Matt Sussex, National Security College, ANU (2018, report)

Europe’s Integration Myths: A Guide for Successfully Debunking Myths Surrounding the European Union
By the GLOBSEC Policy Institute (2018, report)

Countering Russian Information Operations in the Age of Social Media
By Keir Giles, Council Foreign Relations (2017, report) 

Winning the Information War: Techniques and Counter-strategies to Russian Propaganda in Central and Eastern Europe
By Edward Lucas and Peter Pomerantsev, CEPA (2016, report)

Full-Scale Democratic Response to Hostile Disinformation Operations
By Jakub Janda, European Values Center for Security Policy (2016, report)

A framework guide to tools for countering hostile foreign electoral interference
By Jakub Janda, European Values Center for Security Policy (2016, report)

Russian Hybrid Warfare: How to Confront a New Challenge to the West
By Pasi Eronen, Foundation for Defense of Democracies (2016, report)

State Responses, Reports, and Investigations

What actions and countermeasures are different countries adopting in response to Russia’s disinformation and hostile influence efforts? This section compiles the most important official reports and investigations about the Kremlin’s activities, as well as some of the national responses.

Report on the Investigation into Russian Interference in the 2016 Presidential Election
By US Special Counsel Robert S. Mueller, III (2019). Read expert summaries of the Mueller report here.

Disinformation and ‘Fake News’: Final Report
By the Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee of the UK Parliament (2019)

U.S. Sanctions on Russia: An Overview
By the US Congressional Research Service (2019)

Latvia Blocks Access to Kremlin Mouthpiece Portal According to EU Sanctions Rules
By Latvian Public Broadcasting (2019)

Latvia: 2018 State Security Annual Report
By the Constitution Protection Bureau of the Republic of Latvia (2018)

Lithuania: National Threat Assessment 2018
By the State Security Department of the Republic of Lithuania (2018)

Countering Information Influence Activities: A Handbook for Communicators
By the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (2018)

UK Government Launches Rapid Response Unit against Disinformation
By the Government Communication Service (2018)

Putin’s Asymmetric Assault on Democracy in Russia and Europe: Implications for U.S. National Security
By the Committee on Foreign Relations, US Senate (2018)

The FBI Launches a Combating Foreign Influence Webpage
Press Release, FBI National Press Office (2018)

Exposing Russia’s Effort to Sow Discord Online: The Internet Research Agency and Advertisements
By the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, US House of Representatives (2018)

Assessing Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent US Elections (Intelligence Community Assessment)
By the Office of the Director of National Intelligence, United States (2017)

Global Magnitsky Act: Executive Order Blocking the Property of Persons Involved in Serious Human Rights Abuse or Corruption
White House Executive Order (2017)

Enhanced Analysis of GRIZZLY STEPPE Activity
By the National Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center, Department of US Homeland Security (2017)

International Security and Estonia
By Teabeamet Estonian Information Board, now Estonian Foreign Intelligence Service (2017)

Denmark: Intelligence Risk Assessment 2017
By the Danish Defense Intelligence Service (2017)

Russia: Implications for UK Defence and Security
By the UK House of Commons Defence Committee (2016)

EU Restrictive Measures in Response to the Crisis in Ukraine
By the Council of the European Union (overview, 2014-present)

How Is the EU Tackling Disinformation?

Official EU documents, policy statements, and reports regarding the European Union's counter-disinformation activities and strategy are compiled here, beginning with the March 2015 Council Conclusions that established the East Stratcom Task Force.

Progress Report on the Action Plan against Disinformation
EEAS and European Commission (2019)

First Results of the EU Code of Practice against Disinformation
European Commission (2019)

Online disinformation and the EU’s response
By Naja Bentzen, commissioned by the European Parliament (report, 2019)

Action Plan against Disinformation
EEAS and European Commission (2018)

Code of Practice against Disinformation
European Commission (2018)

Joint Communication: Increasing Resilience and Bolstering Capabilities to Address Hybrid Threats
EEAS and European Commission (2018)

The Digital Transformation of News Media and the Rise of Disinformation and Fake News
Joint Research Centre, EU Science Hub (2018, report)

The Fotyga Report: On EU Strategic Communication to Counteract Propaganda against it by Third Parties
Committee on Foreign Affairs, European Parliament (2016)

Joint Framework on Countering Hybrid Threats
EEAS and European Commission (2016)

March 2015 Council Conclusions
European Council (2015)