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The tools to understand and respond
to disinformation

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Disinformation is one of the key challenges of our times. Sometimes it may seem that it is everywhere around us. From the family gatherings where heated discussions on politics, society and even personal health choices take place, to internet, social media and even international politics.

It is not just individuals on the internet who are creating and spreading disinformation now and then. Foreign states, particularly Russia and China, have systematically used disinformation and information manipulation to sow division within our societies and to undermine our democracies, by eroding trust in the rule of law, elected institutions, democratic values and media. Disinformation as part of foreign information manipulation and interference poses a security threat affecting the safety of the European Union and its Member States.

What is disinformation exactly? How can we avoid falling for it, if at all? How can we respond to it? The Learn platform aims to help you find answers to these and other topical questions based on EUvsDisinfo’s collective experience gained since its creation in 2015. Here, you will find some of our best texts and a selection of useful tools, games, podcasts and other resources to build or strengthen your resilience to disinformation. Learn to discern with EUvsDisinfo, #DontBeDeceived and become more resilient.

Define

Fake news

Inaccurate, sensationalist, misleading information. The term “fake news” has strong political connotations and is woefully inaccurate to describe the complexity of the issues at stake. Hence, at EUvsDisinfo we prefer more precise definitions of the phenomenon (e.g. disinformation, information manipulation).

Propaganda

Content disseminated to further one's cause or to damage an opposing cause, often using unethical persuasion techniques. This is a catch-all term with strong historical connotations, thus we rarely use it in our work. Notably, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, adopted by the UN in 1966 states that propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law.

Misinformation

False or misleading content shared without intent to cause harm. However, its effects can still be harmful, e.g. when people share false information with friends and family in good faith.

Disinformation

False or misleading content that is created, presented and disseminated with an intention to deceive or secure economic or political gain and which may cause public harm. Disinformation does not include errors, satire and parody, or clearly identified partisan news and commentary.

Information influence operation

Coordinated efforts by domestic or foreign actors to influence a target audience using a range of deceptive means, including suppressing independent information sources in combination with disinformation.

Foreign information manipulation and interference (FIMI)

A pattern of behaviour in the information domain that threatens values, procedures and political processes. Such activity is manipulative (though usually not illegal), conducted in an intentional and coordinated manner, often in relation to other hybrid activities. It can be pursued by state or non-state actors and their proxies.

Understand

What is Disinformation?

And why should you care?

Some would say that disinformation, or lying, is a part of human interaction. White lies, blatant lies, falsifications, “alternative facts”; propaganda has followed humankind throughout our history. Even the snake in the garden of Eden lied to Adam and Eve!

Others would add that disinformation, especially used for political or geopolitical purposes, is a much more recent invention that became widely used by the totalitarian regimes of the 20th century. And that it was perfected by the KGB - the Soviet Union’s main security agency - which developed so-called “active measures”[1] to sow division and confusion in attempts to undermine the West. And that disinformation continues to be used by Russia for the same purpose to this day. (You can learn more about how Russia has revitalised KGB disinformation methods in our 2019 interview with independent Russian journalist Roman Dobrokhotov.)

There are many ways to answer the question of what disinformation is, and at EUvsDisinfo we have considered its philosophical, technological, political, sociological and communications aspects. We have tried to cover them all in this LEARN section.

Our own story began in 2015, after the European Council, the highest level of decision-making in the European Union, called out Russia as a source of disinformation, and tasked us with challenging Russia’s ongoing disinformation campaigns. Read our story here. In 2014 – the year before EUvsDisinfo was set up – a European country had, for the first time since World War II, used military force to attack and take land from a neighbour: Russia illegally annexed the Ukrainian peninsula of Crimea. Russia’s aggression in Ukraine was accompanied by an overwhelming disinformation campaign, culminating in an all-out invasion and large-scale genocidal violence against Ukraine. Countering Russian disinformation means fighting Russian aggression – as told by Ukrainian fact-checkers Vox Check, who talked to us quite literally from the battlefield trenches where they continue to defend Ukraine.

It is hard to overstate the role of Russian state-controlled media and the wider pro-Kremlin disinformation ecosystem in mobilising domestic support for the invasion of Ukraine.[2] The Kremlin’s grip on the information space in Russia is also an illustration of how authoritarian regimes use state-controlled media as a Tribune, platform to disseminate instructions to their subjects on how to act and what to think, demanding unconditional loyalty from the audience. This stands in sharp contrast to the understanding of media as a forum where a free exchange of views and ideas takes place; where debates, scrutiny and criticism create public discourse that sustains democracies. (We explore these concepts in our text on propaganda and disempowerment.)

Just like the use of media as a Tribune, pro-Kremlin disinformation is supported by a megaphone – the megaphone of manipulative tactics. The use of bots, trolls, fake websites and fake experts and many more activities trying to distort the genuine discussions we need for a democratic debate, is designed to reach as many people as possible to make them feel uncertain, afraid and to instil hatred in them. This shows that it is not a matter of free speech. The right to say false or misleading things is protected in our societies. This, however, is a matter of the Kremlin using all this manipulation as a way to be louder than everyone else. Such information manipulation and interference, including disinformation, is what EUvsDisinfo wants to expose, explain and counter.

Disinformation and other information manipulation efforts, which we also cover in LEARN, attempt to poison such public discourse. Thus, countering disinformation also means defending democracy and standing up against authoritarianism.

Scroll through this section and make sure to check the others, to learn more about the Narratives and Rhetoric of pro-Kremlin disinformation; Disinformation Tactics, Techniques and Procedures; the Pro-Kremlin Media Ecosystem; and Philosophy and Disinformation. Check out the Respond section to learn what you can do it about it. And if you are still curious – we have something special for you too!


[1] The New York Times made an excellent documentary on this back in 2018, called “Operation InfeKtion”,  (available in English).

[2] It is for this reason that the EU has sanctioned several dozen Russian propagandists and suspended the broadcasting of Russia state-controlled outlets such as RT on the territory of the EU.

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Narratives and Rhetoric of Disinformation

The Narratives section will introduce the key narratives repeatedly pushed by pro-Kremlin disinformation and the cheap rhetorical tricks that the Kremlin uses to gain the upper hand in the information space. This section also discusses the lure of conspiracy theories and finally uncovers the dangers of hate speech. We will explain all pro-Kremlin tools and tricks used to erode trust; discourage, confuse and disempower citizens; attack democratic values, institutions and countries; and incite hate and violence.

The Key Narratives in Pro-Kremlin Disinformation

A narrative is an overall message communicated through texts, images, metaphors, and other means. Narratives help relay a message by creating suspense and making information attractive. Pro-Kremlin narratives are harmful and form a part of information manipulation. They are designed to foster distrust and a feeling of disempowerment, and thus increase polarisation and social fragmentation. Ultimately, these narratives are intended to undermine trust in democratic institutions and liberal democracy itself as a form of governing.

We have identified six major repetitive narratives that pro-Kremlin disinformation outlets use in order to undermine democracy and democratic institutions, in particular in “the West”.

These narratives are: 1) The Elites vs. People; 2) The 'Threatened Values'; 3) Lost Sovereignty; 4) The Imminent Collapse;  5) Hahaganda; and 6. Unfounded accusations of Nazism.

Rhetorical Devices as Kremlin Cheap Tricks

The Kremlin's cheap tricks are a series of rhetorical devices used to, among other purposes, deflect criticism, discourage debate, and discredit any opponents.

These rhetorical devices are designed to occupy the information space, create an element of uncertainty, and to exhaust any opposition. They are often used in combination with each other to create a more effective disinformation campaign.

The rhetorical devices that the pro-Kremlin outlets and on-line trolls alike use include the straw man, whataboutism, attack, mockery, provocation, exhaust, and denial.

For example, the straw man is a rhetorical device where the troll attacks views or ideas never expressed by the opponent. The Kremlin also frequently uses attack as a cheap trick to discourage the opposition from continuing the conversation. Sarcasm, mockery, and ridicule are also common Kremlin tactics to gain advantage in a debate. Finally, the Kremlin often uses denial to discredit opponents and dismiss any evidence that raises questions about Russian accountability.

The Lure of Conspiracy Theories for Authoritarian Leaders

Conspiracy theories are not only a potent element for creating an enticing plot in thrillers, but also for propaganda purposes. One of the many conspiracy theories that has made its way on the Russian TV is the Shadow Government conspiracy theory. It is based on the belief that there is a small group of people, hiding from us, controlling the world.

From the propaganda perspective, the charm of the Shadow Government theory is that it can be filled with anything you want. Catholics, bankers, Jews, feminists, freemasons, “Big Pharma”, Muslims, the gay lobby, bureaucrats - all depending on your target audience.

The goal of the Shadow Government narrative is to question the legitimacy of democracy and our institutions. What is the point of voting if the Shadow Government already rules the world? What is the point of being elected if the Deep State resists all attempts to reform? We, as voters, citizens and human beings, are disempowered through the Shadow Government narrative. Ultimately, the narrative is designed to make us give up voting or practicing our right to express our views.

Hate Speech Is Dangerous

Hate speech is any kind of communication in speech, writing or behaviour that attacks or uses pejorative or discriminatory language with reference to a person or group on the basis of who they are. In other words, based on their religion, ethnicity or affiliation.

Hate speech is dangerous as it can lead to wide-scale human rights violations, as we have witnessed most recently in Ukraine. It can also be used to dehumanise an opponent, making them seem less than human and therefore not worthy of the same rights and treatment.

Russian leaders and media have been increasingly using genocide-inciting hate speech against Ukraine and its people since the annexation of Crimea in 2014 and with increasing intensity before the full-scale invasion in February 2022. By portraying the legitimate government in Kyiv and the wider Ukrainian population as sub-human, both the general Russian population and Russian soldiers alike are able to justify atrocities against them.

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Tactics, Techniques and Procedures of Disinformation

For years, work against disinformation used to revolve around a few central questions: is a piece of information true or false? If it is false, is it accidentally or intentionally so? If it is intentionally false or misleading, what is the purpose of its creator or amplifier? Let’s call this is a content-based approach to the problem – a way of monitoring, detecting, and analysing disinformation that is largely focused on the content.

While content is and will remain an integral part of all information manipulation operations, focusing just on that most visible part does not give us a full picture. This is why we have been pivoting to an approach that also includes the analysis of behaviour in the information space. Central to the approach of detecting, analysing, and understanding foreign information manipulation and interference, including disinformation (FIMI), is an ever-evolving set of tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs).

The logic of TTPs explained

Using TTPs to identify and analyse patterns of manipulative behaviour is far from new. Confronted with similar challenges, the cyber- and information security community developed the Att&ck framework back in 2013. It addressed a complex challenge by providing a structure for organising adversary TTPs that allows analysts to categorise adversary behaviours and communicate them in a way that is easily understandable and actionable by defenders.

Based on the Att&ck framework, the cross-Atlantic DISARM Foundation (in collaboration with Cognitive Security Collaborative, Alliance 4 Europe, and many others) set up a similar framework for information manipulation – the DISARM Framework. It is a free and open resource for the global counter-disinformation community. It is not the only one out there, but it is currently one of the most advanced of its kind. In the simplest terms, it provides a single, standard language for describing information manipulation tactics, techniques, and procedures.

Examples of TTPs

The DISARM Framework organises all the TTPs that are known to be used in information manipulation operations – currently standing at about 250 – into an easily comprehensible system. The framework spans across 12 tactical steps of an information operation from planning the strategy and objectives to developing narratives and content and delivering a final assessment.

The TTPs mapped in the framework cover everything from well-known techniques (e.g. creating fake accounts, building bot networks, amplifying conspiracy narratives, using fake experts etc.) to less often talked about ones (e.g. exploiting data voids, utilising butterfly attacks, spamouflaging etc.). The list of TTPs in the framework is far from final as malign actors keep innovating and the threat landscape keeps evolving. Thanks to the fact that the DISARM Framework is an open and joint effort, it is easily modifiable to keep up with the latest insights and trends in information manipulation.

Needless to say, not all information operations include all the phases laid out in the framework, let alone the 250 or so TTPs listed. The idea of the framework is to map out and present a complete picture that we can then use to analyse and systematise an information manipulation operation.

Analysing the behaviour of malign actors by no means implies that the content of information manipulation operations loses its relevance. Quite the contrary – looking at both the behaviour of malign actors and the content used in their operations gives us a much better understanding of the overall threat landscape. Furthermore, approaching the problem equipped with an organised set of TTPs makes information manipulation – an infamously elusive concept – much more measurable. The additional benefit of a common language of clearly defined TTPs is that the work of analysts worldwide becomes more comparable and interoperable.

Addressing information manipulation as a behavioural problem enables us to come up with responses that are targeted, scalable, more objective, and go beyond awareness raising and the debunking and prebunking of misleading or false narratives. A malign actor who wishes to manipulate the information environment needs to follow certain TTPs that we can now understand, detect, and make more costly even before reactive responses become necessary.

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Pro-Kremlin Media Ecosystem

Russia’s attempts to disinform and manipulate in the information space are a global operation. It is an ecosystem of state-funded global messaging where regime representatives speak in unison with the media, organisations, offline and online proxies, and even the Orthodox church. It is an elaborate system using a wide array of techniques, tactics, and procedures, and speaking in dozens of languages – all with the aim of sowing discord, manipulating audiences, and undermining democracy.

EUvsDisinfo has been tracking Russia’s disinformation for years. We have gotten better at detecting and responding to the manipulation attempts. There is now a robust body of evidence of disinformation and manipulation. Nevertheless, Russia keeps attempting to manipulate and sow chaos, and other actors follow suit or, as in the case of China, develop their own playbook of information manipulation and interference, including disinformation.

The ecosystem consists of five main pillars:

  1. official government communications;
  2. state-funded global messaging;
  3. the cultivation of proxy sources;
  4. the weaponisation of social media;
  5. and cyber-enabled information manipulation.

The ecosystem reflects both the sources of information manipulation and disinformation and the tactics that these channels use.

Source: Pillars of Russia's Disinformation and Propaganda Ecosystem, GEC

RT and Sputnik

The main instruments bringing the Kremlin’s disinformation to audiences outside of Russia are RT (available in over 100 countries plus online) and Sputnik (a ‘news’ website in over 30 languages). Both outlets are state-funded and state-directed. With an annual budget of hundreds of millions of dollars, RT and Sputnik’s basic role is to spread disinformation and propaganda narratives via their own channels, websites, and multiple social media accounts (now blocked in the EU due to sanctions connected to Russia’s aggression against Ukraine).

RT and Sputnik also interact with other pillars of the ecosystem. They amplify content from Kremlin and Kremlin-aligned proxy sites, exploit social media to reach as many audiences as possible, and promote cyber-enabled disinformation.

Both outlets attempt to equate themselves with major independent and professional international media outlets. They have been trying to increase both their reach and credibility that way. This is also why they portray any criticism towards them as either Russophobia or as violations of media freedom. The same goes for numerous cases of penalties and EU sanctions which RT tried to fight in the European Court of Justice, but failed.

Moreover, these outlets do not have – and do not seek – any editorial independence, and are instructed what to report on and how by the Kremlin.

In reality, RT and Sputnik’s organisational set-ups and goals are fundamentally different from independent media. RT was included in an official list of core organisations of strategic importance for Russia. RT’s own editor-in-chief, Margarita Simonyan, defines the mission of the outlet in military terms, publicly equating the need for RT with the need for a Defence Ministry. Simonyan also made clear that RT’s mission is to serve the Russian state as an ‘information weapon’ in times of conflict.

Spreading its tentacles

The Kremlin’s tentacles in the information space go way beyond RT and Sputnik. RT is affiliated with Rossiya Segodnya through Margarita Simonyan, the editor-in-chief of both RT and Rossiya Segodnya. Moreover, RT’s parent company, TV-Novosti, was founded by RIA Novosti, and RIA Novosti’s founder’s rights were transferred to Rossiya Segodnya via a presidential executive order in 2013. By the way, the head of Rossiya Segodnya, Dmitry Kiselyov, was sanctioned by the EU back in 2014 for his role as a ‘central figure of the government propaganda supporting the deployment of Russian forces in Ukraine’.

Public records show that some employees work for both RT and Rossiya Segodnya despite the two organisations claiming to be separate. In some cases, staff working for Rossiya Segodnya have worked for other Kremlin-affiliated outlets at the same time.

This is only the tip of the iceberg. There is a well-documented relationship between RT and other pillars in the Russian disinformation ecosystem – a collection of official, proxy, and unattributed communication channels and platforms that Russia uses to create and amplify narratives. These include, among others:

… and many, many, many more.

A special place on this list is reserved for outlets connected and directed by the Belarusian regime, who now act in coordination with the Russian ecosystem (examples here, here and here).

Image from Clint Watts

Russia’s ecosystem of disinformation and information manipulation is about shouting disinformation and propaganda from the rooftops and spreading disinformation as widely as possible using different tactics, techniques, and procedures.

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Disinformation and Philosophy

Other parts of ‘Understand’ focus on narratives, techniques, actors and technological aspects of foreign information manipulation and interference, including disinformation.

However, approaching the matter only from a technological angle ignores that disinformation is an idea. It also ignores that, when practiced, disinformation uses other ideas and is often based on old concepts and metaphors.

Therefore, in our 2021 series called “Disinformation and Philosophy” we explored the historical evolution of disinformation as an idea. 

Broadly speaking, an idea is a thought, concept, sensation, or image that is or could be present in the mind. We asked what the greatest thinkers in the history of philosophy would make of disinformation.

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Forum vs tribună = Habermas vs Schmitt

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Mass-media ancorată în filosofia politică

Cititorii noștri fideli știu că până acum am formulat teorii despre modul în care funcționează mass-media pro-Kremlin și mass-media din societățile democratice. Aceste teorii sunt grupate în jurul a două concepte distincte: Mass-media ca un Forum sau mass-media ca o Tribună. Acesta este, bineînțeles, un model teoretic folosit pentru a cartografia două tipuri ideale de relație între mass-media și public. Cele două tipuri pot fi încadrate în linii mari în reflecțiile despre democrație a doi intelectuali: Carl Schmitt și Jürgen Habermas. Schmitt înțelege politica în termenii unei dihotomii, prieten sau dușman, în timp ce Habermas aspiră la o dezbatere între cetățeni (sau mijloace de informare) cu drepturi egale. În cele ce urmează vom diseca această relație.

Mass-media ca tribună: Atac, învinuire și defăimare

În 2019, am explicat modul în care mass-media pro-Kremlin, funcționează ca o „tribună” din punct de vedere conceptual. Aceasta are următoarele caracteristici: comunicare de sus în jos, loialitate față de ierarhie și doar două registre de exprimare: laudă sau condamnare.

Conceptul de tribună duce în primul rând cu gândul la o platformă folosită de cel care o controlează pentru a-și răspândi ideile și valorile. Este un proces care se desfășoară de sus în jos, în cadrul căruia publicul trebuie să accepte noțiunile în mod pasiv și să primească instrucțiuni de la conducători despre cum să se comporte sau ce să gândească. Conceptul se bazează pe loialitatea necondiționată din partea publicului.

Această idee a pătruns chiar și în structura instituțională a celor doi piloni ai dezinformării pro-Kremlin: Sputnik și RT. Sputnik a fost creat prin decret prezidențial cu scopul de a „emite rapoarte despre politica de stat a Rusiei în străinătate”. RT este finanțat integral de guvernul rus și a fost inclus pe o listă oficială a organizațiilor de bază cu importanță strategică pentru Rusia. Pentru mai multe informații despre modul în care funcționează RT și Sputnik, puteți citi acest articol publicat anterior.

Din punctul lor de vedere, jurnaliștii, judecătorii și politicienii care au un comportament independent față de cei de la putere și care, drept urmare, scriu într-o manieră critică, semnalează problemele juridice ale legislației sau prezintă politici alternative nu sunt nimic altceva decât amenințări existențiale. Prin urmare, mass-media pro-Kremlin nu are reacții la conținutul prezentat de aceștia, ci urmărește adesea să le submineze credibilitatea.

Iată câteva exemple.

Dacă platforme de jurnalism de investigație precum Bellingcat ajung la rezultate incomode în cadrul unei investigații privind otrăvirea unuia dintre cei mai proeminenți lideri ai opoziției de la Kremlin, precum Navalnîi, mass-media pro-Kremlin nu se va concentra asupra cercetării în sine. În schimb, va ataca colectivul, prezentându-l ca pe o fabrică de falsuri. Deoarece mass-media pro-Kremlin are propria fabrică, intuim că în spatele limbajului folosit se află multă proiecție.

Acesta este motivul pentru care vedem extrem de multe încercări de a submina poziția lui Navalnîi.

Statul de drept este, de asemenea, esențial pentru a proteja libertatea presei. Prin urmare, este logic ca mass-media pro-Kremlin să atace frecvent Curtea Europeană a Drepturilor Omului.

Schmitt și nevoia existențială de luptă

Politologul bulgar Ivan Krastev, unul dintre cei mai mari gânditori actuali din sfera științelor politice, a arătat influența lui Schmitt asupra statalității și politicii externe rusești contemporane (cu ramificații în activitățile de dezinformare rusești).

Deși Schmitt este recunoscut pe scară largă drept un intelectual strălucit, faptul că a fost supranumit „juristul de vază” al socialismului naționalist îi umbrește reputația. După ce Hitler a venit la putere în 1933, Schmitt a trecut de partea naziștilor. Cu timpul, a obținut o poziție influentă și nu a ezitat să se folosească de această poziție pentru a publica pledoarii în favoarea execuțiilor extrajudiciare ale adversarilor politici și a eforturilor de a anihila influența evreiască din jurisprudența germană.

Așadar, ce anume din ce a scris Schmitt ne intrigă și astăzi? De ce este încă luat în serios de către teoreticienii din științele politice? Răspunsul gravitează în jurul unei întrebări aparent simple. În eseul său din 1932, Definirea naturii politice, acesta se întreabă: ce presupune natura politică a unui lucru?

Schmitt nu caută un anumit mod de viață sau un anumit set de instituții, ci mai degrabă criteriul pe baza căruia se iau anumite tipuri de decizii. Ceva comparativ cu noțiunile de „bine” și „rău” din etică sau „frumos” și „urât” din estetică. Răspunsul său este următorul: toate acțiunile și motivațiile din politică se reduc în cele din urmă la deosebirea dintre „prieten” și „dușman”. Pentru a clarifica, vom adăuga că dușmanul nu este o categorie morală, nici o entitate personală, ci o entitate publică. Totuși, pentru Schmitt, dușmanul are un caracter existențial, în sensul că avem nevoie de el pentru a ne defini pe noi înșine. „Spune-mi cine este dușmanul tău și eu îți voi spune cine ești”, scrie el.

Schmitt se îndepărtează în mod radical de tradiția filosofiei politice, venind în apărarea valorii pe care o are lupta între dușmani. Gânditorii politici de după Hobbes, care a inventat Leviatanul pentru a birui caracterul ostil al omului aflat în stare naturală, au venit cu modele care încercau să limiteze agresivitatea umană.

Nu este de mirare că Schmitt manifestă aversiune tocmai față de acest aspect al democrației liberale, dat fiind că scopul său este să neutralizeze conflictul. În opinia sa, conflictele sănătoase s-au evaporat din societățile moderne. Cauzele acestei evaporări sunt, de exemplu, tranzacțiile de pe piață, procedurile legale din sistemele judiciare și, cel mai rău dintre toate, eternele dezbateri din parlament. Lipsa unei lupte în cadrul democrației, element esențial pentru dezvoltarea unei identități, a transformat indivizii în entități neînsemnate (consumatori, clienți sau alegători).

Prin urmare, nu este o coincidență faptul că directorul general și redactorul-șef al Sputnik, Dmitri Kiselyov, le-a spus angajaților din redacție că: „Perioada jurnalismului imparțial s-a încheiat. Obiectivitatea este un mit”.

Teologia politică prezintă teoria lui Schmitt despre suveranitate (1922), sursa: Wikimedia

Mass-media ca Forum

Mass-media ca Forum este un concept care se referă la un comportament radical diferit de cel al mass-mediei ca Tribună. Acesta se conturează în siajul ideilor lui Habermas.

Într-o democrație, mass-media (ar trebui să) contribuie la un spațiu pe care Habermas l-a numit herrschaftsfreie Kommunikation, un spațiu de comunicare liber de orice dominație. În termeni simpli, acesta are următoarele caracteristici: comunicare de la egal la egal și o atitudine critică prin natura sa. Activitatea sa de bază este examinarea independentă. Dacă pentru modelul tribunei cea mai potrivită caracterizare este semnul exclamării, pentru modelul forumului semnul întrebării este cea mai potrivită portretizare.

Conceptul de Forum se bazează pe un schimb de idei și opinii în plan orizontal. În general, mass-media își asumă rolul de spațiu pentru desfășurarea discursului public. Forumul nu este un loc în care se iau decizii, ci un loc de dezbatere, de interogare, de verificare sub lupă, de critică. Un forum de succes poate fi un loc zgomotos, dur și chiar vulgar. Poate fi moderat, dar niciodată controlat de către cineva.

Habermas în apărarea dezbaterii

Dacă modelul tribunei corespunde gândirii lui Schmitt, modelul forumului se pliază pe ideile lui Habermas. Probabil că acesta ar numi tipul de raționament din modelul tribună „instrumental”. El face o distincție tranșantă între acesta și tipul de raționament „comunicativ”.

Cine este Habermas, ce a spus acesta despre comunicare și cum se încadrează spusele sale în definiția mai largă pe care a dat-o democrației?

Jürgen Habermas, singurul filosof din seria noastră care este încă în viață, este recunoscut ca fiind unul dintre cei mai influenți filosofi ai vremurilor noastre. El creează în mod remarcabil o punte între tradițiile de gândire de pe continentul european și cele anglo-americane. Am putea spune că ambiția sa filosofică este de a integra pretenția tradițională a filosofiei de universalitate și raționalitate într-o abordare mai modestă, failibilă și empirică a adevărului. Habermas s-a angrenat în dezbateri cu o gamă largă de gânditori (Gadamer, Putnam, Foucault, Rawls și Derrida).

În centrul concepției lui Habermas despre democrație se află dezbaterea. Dat fiind că produsul democrației este o legislație care îi poate constrânge pe cetățeni: „pot pretinde legitimitate numai acele legi care primesc acordul tuturor cetățenilor în cadrul unui proces discursiv de legiferare care, la rândul său, a fost constituit legal”. Pe scurt, ideal ar fi ca oamenii să aibă capacitatea de a se vedea pe ei înșiși drept coautori ai legislației.

Nucleul acestui proces discursiv este Teoria acțiunii comunicative a lui Habermas. Potrivit lui Habermas, în acțiunea comunicativă, participanții împărtășesc o convingere reciprocă conform căreia obiectivele lor sunt „intrinsec rezonabile” sau „demne de laudă”. Pornind de la această bază, participanții își pot coordona acțiunile și ambițiile colective. Acest lucru este diferit de acțiunea strategică, care este esențială pentru atingerea obiectivelor personale. Pentru Habermas, acțiunea comunicativă are succes dacă participanții sunt de acord că obiectivele lor sunt rezonabile.

Acțiunea comunicativă este legată de „raționalitatea discursului”. Ce înseamnă acest lucru? Habermas explică faptul că un mesaj transmis pe cale orală a fost cu adevărat înțeles numai atunci când receptorul adoptă o „poziție afirmativă” față de ceea ce s-a spus. Receptorul presupune că afirmația se bazează pe motive întemeiate. Dacă receptorul nu adoptă totuși această poziție afirmativă, comunicatorii pot trece de la o activitate uzuală de comunicare orală la „discurs”, o practică de argumentare și dialog. Drept consecință, se verifică (cu ajutorul rațiunii) dacă afirmațiile făcute sunt adevărate, corecte sau autentice. Mass-media este indispensabilă la nivel public în acest proces. Habermas susține că ordinea socială are, la urma urmei, nevoie ca participanții să se transforme într-un „temei împărtășit” al afirmațiilor care sunt necesare pentru cooperarea socială.

Jürgen Habermas, sursa: Wikimedia

Adevărata luptă

Schmitt afirmă că democrația liberală transformă oamenii în entități slabe și neînsemnate. Aceștia au nevoie de o luptă pentru a-și găsi propria identitate. Însă Schmitt însuși nu este capabil să explice de ce în situația pe care o preferă indivizii nu sunt la fel de neînsemnați, poate nu în calitate de consumatori, ci de data aceasta ca dușmani eterni.

Teoria lui Schmitt despre democrație stă la temelia modelului mass-media ca tribună. De cealaltă parte a baricadei, teoria lui Habermas explică de ce dezbaterea este importantă pentru a legitima legi și decizii de pe urma cărora unii oameni au beneficii, în timp ce alții poate că nu au. O platformă cu o pluralitate de mijloace de informare care se angajează în dezbateri de pe poziții egale, se va asigura că toate pozițiile și interesele, indiferent cât de diferite ar fi, sunt ascultate, examinate și cântărite.

Este necesar însă un avertisment. Harta nu este totuna cu teritoriul; modelul forumului nu reprezintă neapărat realitatea din democrațiile noastre. Și chiar dacă ar fi așa, realitatea nu este ceva imuabil. Mai devreme, ideile lui Arendt ne-au reamintit că este nevoie de un ecosistem sănătos format din jurnaliști, avocați, instanțe judecătorești, oameni de știință și istorici. Îndrăznim să spunem că poate este nevoie și de teatru sau artă. Inspirați de Foucault, am subliniat faptul că este nevoie, de asemenea, de participanți care să fie dispuși nu numai să deconstruiască, să examineze și să critice partea adversă, ci și să facă același lucru pentru propria paradigmă.

Nu cumva adevărata luptă este găsirea curajului necesar pentru a ne putea angrena într-o conversație autentică cu „partea adversă”?

Citiți mai multe

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Practice

Disinformation is tricky. Test your resilience with our quiz to see if you can identify disinformation, unreliable information and falsified content and if you know how to think before sharing things online.

Still Curious?

The following content is of an informative character and does not represent an official EU position. Unless otherwise stated it is not a product of the European Union.

  • Teaching Tools

    Better Internet for kids

    Resources for teachers, parents and children. Lessons plans, courses, games and teaching resources and discover the online world safely. Platform run by Safer Internet Centres, the European network, which informs, advises and assists children, parents, teachers and carers on digital questions and fights against online child sexual abuse.
    Multiple languages

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  • Teaching Tools

    Check or Cheat

    A collection of educational material for secondary education students and teachers to learn how to critically evaluate media content, fact check and build resilience to disinformation. Features teacher training, cards game, educational material.
    Available in English, Greek, Lithuanian and Spanish

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Teaching Tools

    Conspiracy Theories: what teachers need to know

    Guidebook on conspiracy theories prepared by UNESCO.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Teaching Tools

    Council of Europe

    Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture. The Council of Europe has developed a set of learning activities that may be used in primary and secondary education, all of which are based directly on the disinformation challenges raised by the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Available in English and French

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  • Teaching Tools

    Council of Europe Materials

    Dealing with propaganda, misinformation and fake news, definitions, recommendations.
    Available in English and French

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  • Teaching Tools

    Countering Disinformation Guidebook

    The guide is divided into three categories, examining the roles of specific stakeholder groups in building a democratic information space, legal, normative, and research responses, as well as dimensions for addressing disinformation and other harmful forms of content targeting women and marginalized groups.
    Available in Arabic, English, French, Russian, Spanish.

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  • Teaching Tools

    CrAL

    Creative Audiovisual Lab. The aim of the project is to enhance critical thinking and media literacy among young people between 14-19 years old, parents, and educational staff. Features and online training for teachers and trainers.
    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    Digital resistance handbook for teachers

    Handbook for teachers by the Council of Europe on how to support their students to recognise fake news and false information found in the online environment.
    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    Disarming Disinformation

    List of resources by the Global Engagement Center (GEC) of the U.S. Department of State. It includes infographics, taxonomy and literature, among others.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Teaching Tools

    DO’s and DON’Ts on Twitter: Defend Democracy

    The list of basic actions to deal with disinformation and propaganda on Twitter. suitable for all twitter users and to explore in classrooms. Prepared by the Defend Democracy NGO.

    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    E-learning: vaccination

    E-learning course on how to address online vaccination misinformation offered by the European Centre for Disease Control.
    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    eSafety Commissioner

    Australian parent guide to mental health: webinars, resources and trainings to help young people develop strategies for their mental health while they are online.
    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    eTwinning

    Teaching Media Literacy with eTwinning. Best practices, project ideas.
    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    EU Gudelines for teachers and educators

    The Guidelines for teachers and educators on tackling disinformation and promoting digital literacy through education provide hands-on guidance for teachers and educators, including practical tips, activity plans, insights on topics and cautionary notes grounded in what works as concerns digital literacy and education and training.

    Available in English, Bulgarian, German, French

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  • Teaching Tools

    EU Neighbours East

    Training opportunities for media and Civil Society Organizations across Eastern Partnership countries.
    Available in English, Armenian, Azeri, Georgian, Romanian, Russian and Ukrainian

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  • Teaching Tools

    EuroGuide Toolkit

    The guide offers teachers and social workers practical tools to respond to socio-political or religious arguments in order to prevent radicalisation in the school. Guidance is offered on how to create resilient environments and safe spaces where vulnerable young people can open up, sharpen their social and emotional skills, and improve their self-esteem.
    Available in English, Dutch, French, Hungarian, Italian and Swedish

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  • Teaching Tools

    Fact4All

    European Schoolnet has published an online MOOC to foster critical thinking and tackle online disinformation through intergenerational collaboration and community engagement. The course is targeted at primary and secondary school teachers of any subject.
    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    Fakescape

    Fakescape is an escape game teaching media literacy to high school students (14+). It can be played in a classroom during a 45 minutes class. Run by a Czech NGO.

    Available in English and Czech

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  • Teaching Tools

    Get Your Facts Straight

    The platform offers a 10-hour media literacy training course on disinformation on social media for 14–16-year-olds as well as their parents and grandparents. The course focuses on what disinformation is, why it is vastly present on social media, and how to recognise and respond to disinformation. The course can be implemented both in schools, as well as in non-formal educational settings such as youth clubs, libraries and NGOs. By ALL DIGITAL.
    Available in English, Bulgarian, Catalan, Croatian, German, Italian, Latvian, Romanian and Spanish

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  • Teaching Tools

    Global Media and Information Literacy Week

    Resources, best practices, events across the globe marking the Global Media and Information Literacy Week.
    Available in English, French, Spanish, Russian, Arabic and Chinese

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  • Teaching Tools

    Guide for Public Communicators

    Strategic Communications guide for public communicators with strategies development and response examples developed by EUvsDisinfo.
    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    ISD Explainers

    An overview of extremist narratives, movements and actors. Offers background and history of the term, related narratives and background reading. Terms include among others ‘The Manosphere’, ‘The New World Order’, ‘Accelerationism’, ‘The Great Replacement’ and ‘The Order of Nine Angels’. By Institute of Strategic Dialogue.
    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    milON

    Digital literacy in the MENA-region that targets young people and educators. I promotes media literacy with educational short videos filmed in the region as well as offers pedagogical material for educators.
    Available in English, French and Arabic

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  • Teaching Tools

    News Literacy Project

    News Literacy Project provides programs and resources for educators and the public to teach, learn and share the abilities needed to be smart, active consumers of news and information, and equal and engaged participants in a democracy.
    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    OECD Assessment rubrics

    Assessment rubrics for critical thinking (largely to be used in formative feedback).
    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    Online Media Literacy Resources

    A list of online resources recommended by the UK government. The list includes tips on reporting inappropriate content, preventing online harassment, cyberbullying and much more.

    Available in English

     

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  • Teaching Tools

    RAN Collection

    More than 200 inspiring practices on preventing radicalisation to terrorism and violent extremism.
    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    She Persisted

    A Digital Resilience Toolkit for Women in Politics with respond and prevention techniques. Offered by She Persisted.
    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    The Wall of Beliefs

    Toolkit for understanding false beliefs and developing effective counter-disinformation strategies.
    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    The World Unplugged

    This activity requires asking a group (a classroom/a group of students) to avoid all screens, connections and media activity for 24 hours. After that, follows a guided discussion about how they have felt during that time, how dependent they are from technology, and positive and negative outcomes after being disconnected.
    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    Toolkit for Teachers

    Spot and fight disinformation: presentation and introduction booklet including real life examples and group exercises for your classroom.
    Available in all EU languages

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  • Teaching Tools

    UNESCO resources

    Media Information Literacy Tools for Teachers offered by UNESCO.
    Available in multiple languages

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Teaching Tools

    UNESCO: Think critically, click wisely!

    A comprehensive guide by UNESCO Media and information literate citizens: Think critically, click wisely! is a curriculum for educators and learners. 2021 edition.

    Available in English

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  • Teaching Tools

    Very Verified

    Online course on Media Literacy developing critical thinking. It’s available in 3 different learning modules, and covers topics such as media landscape, types of media, social media and disinformation and manipulation. Developed by IREX.
    Available in English, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Russian

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  • Teaching Tools

    Медіапутівник: як розпізнавати якісну інформацію та чому це важливо?

    Cерія з дев’яти коротких відеолекцій, які пояснюють, що таке якісний медіапродукт, яким стандартам мають відповідати правдиві інформаційні повідомлення та як медіа часто можуть маніпулювати свідомістю споживачів інформації. Ця серія відеолекцій створена експертками Інституту демократії імені Пилипа Орлика / POID, авторитетної української організації, що спеціалізується на розвитку незалежних медіа та розширенні можливостей громадянського суспільства.

    Кожен із дев’яти епізодів цього відеокурсу присвячений одній темі та триває в середньому сім хвилин. Ця серія щодо розвитку медіаграмотності пропонує низку корисних інструментів, які допомагають навчитися відрізняти якісну інформацію від низькоякісної та вміти самостійно її перевіряти.

     

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  • Fact-checking Tools

    Anti-misinformation actions by Poynter

    A guide to anti-misinformation actions around the world. What is the focus of tackling disinformation per country? What is its current state of play?

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Fact-checking Tools

    DFR Lab

    Read recent research and analysis exposing disinformation by Digital Forensic Research Lab and become a Digital Sherlock.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Fact-checking Tools

    DISARM Framework

    DISARM is an open-source, master framework for fighting disinformation for those cooperating in the fight against disinformation. It provides a common playbook, language and approaches for diverse teams and organizations to coordinate their efforts and act in harmony.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Fact-checking Tools

    EU Disinfo Lab

    Tools for monitoring and analysis gathered by the EU Disinfo Lab think tank.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Fact-checking Tools

    European Digital Media Observatory

    Find your local fact-checker in the EU with EDMO. Check their site for the map of fact-checking initiatives across all EU member states, recent debunks, analysis and much more.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Fact-checking Tools

    International fact-checking Network

    Find your local fact-checker worldwide among the signatories of the code of principles of the International Fact-Checking Network.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Fact-checking Tools

    Mapping media policy and journalism

    The mapping by the Centre for Media Pluralism and Media Freedom offers, among other topics, information about media ownership, whistleblowing protection, freedom of information across the EU.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Fact-checking Tools

    Open Source Tools by Bellingcat

    Collection of open source tools for online investigations and fact-checking. Trainings, analysis, investigations recommended by Bellingcat, an independent international collective of researchers, investigators and citizen journalists.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Fact-checking Tools

    OSINT Framework

    A comprehensive collection of open source intelligence (OSINT) tools and resources.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Fact-checking Tools

    WeVerify Verification Plugin

    An open source platform aiming to engage communities and citizen journalists alongside newsroom and freelance journalists for collaborative, decentralised content verification, tracking, and debunking. Accessible from your browser.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Films

    After Truth: Disinformation and the Cost of Fake News (2020)

    Must see. This HBO documentary investigates disinformation campaigns and frauds, including the Pizzagate hoax.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Films

    Agent of Chaos (2020)

    A two-part documentary from director Alex Gibney investigates Russia’s interference in the U.S. presidential election of 2016.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Films

    Bob Roberts (1992)

    In the category “satirical mockumentary”, this film depicts the rise of Robert “Bob” Roberts Jr., a right-wing politician. He is a candidate for an upcoming United States Senate election. Roberts is rich and famous thanks to his folk music, which presents his conservative ideas with zest. This film might help to understand the current political context of populism.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Films

    Coded Bias (2020)

    Documentary about biases literally coded in the algorithms. When MIT Media Lab researcher Joy Buolamwini discovers that facial recognition does not see dark-skinned faces accurately, she embarks on a journey to push for the first-ever U.S. legislation against bias in algorithms that impact us all.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Films

    Death of Stalin (2017)

    This comedy explores historical revisionism, and perhaps what the Kremlin fears most in historical remembrance. The film was eventually banned from screening in Russia. Pavel Pozhigaylo, a member of the Russian Culture Ministry’s advisory board said about it: “The film desecrates our historical symbols — the Soviet hymn, orders and medals, and Marshal Zhukov is portrayed as an idiot.”

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Films

    Network (1976)

    A television network exploits a crazed former anchor’s ravings and revelations about the news media for its own profit. Quite prophetic considering this movie was made in the 70’s.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Films

    Operation InfeKtion: How Russia Perfected the Art of War (2018)

    Modern classic, produced by the New York Times. “Operation InfeKtion” reveals the ways in which one of the Soviets’ central tactics — the promulgation of lies about America — continues today, from Pizzagate to George Soros conspiracies. Big advantage: it is on YouTube!

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Films

    The Great Hack (2019)

    Documentary by Netflix. It explores how a data company (Cambridge Analytica) came to symbolise the dark side of social media in the wake of the 2016 U.S. presidential election, as uncovered by journalist Carole Cadwalladr.

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  • Films

    The Hater (2020)

    Netflix’s production exploring the dark world of social media smear tactics and its violent real-life consequences. A young man searches for purpose in a net of hatred and violence that he tries to control.

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  • Films

    The Social Dilemma (2020)

    Netflix’s production is a great watch on the impact of social media on our societies and our mental health. Also interesting to crosscheck is Facebook’s responses to the creators.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Films

    Truman Show (1998)

    An insurance salesman discovers his whole life is actually a reality TV show. While critically portraying the role of modern media (even before the rise of the Internet), the film plays with themes such as human autonomy and reality.

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  • Films

    Wag the Dog (1997)

    This comedy is about a spin-doctor and a Hollywood producer, who shortly before an election join efforts to fabricate a war in order to cover up a Presidential sex scandal. Starring Dustin Hoffman, Robert de Niro, Willie Nelson, Kirsten Dunst and Woody Harrelson.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    BBC Reality Check

    Role-play game for young media professionals. Your role as a BBC journalist is to cover a breaking news story to be featured on “BBC Live” site. Teaching how to balance accuracy, impact and speed in live reporting.
    Available in English

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  • Games

    Cat Park

    The game simulates the tactics and techniques of media manipulation that are used in the real world to exploit social tensions for personal or political game. For users 15+. Developed by the U.S. Department of State GEC.

    Available in English, Dutch, French and Russian

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  • Games

    Cranky Uncle

    The Cranky Uncle game uses cartoons and critical thinking to fight misinformation. Available on iPhone and Android. Teachers’ Guide to Cranky Uncle
    Available in English

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  • Games

    Cyberbullying

    Learn how to deal with cyberbullying.
    Available in Armenian, Azeri, English and Georgian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Detect Fakes

    At Detect Political Fakes, we will show you a variety of media snippets (transcripts, audio, and videos). Half of the media snippets are real statements made by Joseph Biden and Donald Trump. The other half of the media snippets are fabricated. The media snippets that are fabricated are produced using deepfake technology. We are asking you to share how confident you are that a media snippet is real or fabricated.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Disinformation Diaries

    The Disinformation Diaries is a game-based media literacy tool to help you better understand how disinformation and deepfakes can interfere with democratic elections.
    Available in Albanian, English, French and Georgian

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  • Games

    Dr Fake

    Dr. Fake has invaded the Media Literacy City! A player has to confront four of his companions: Mr. Deepfake, Mr. Troll, Mr. Clone and Mr. Phisher and answer their questions correctly.
    Available in Armenian, Azeri, English and Georgian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Factitious 2020

    A game intended to help players learn how to identify fake news stories. The game shows actual news articles, without revealing their publication source until the player clicks to see it. Are they true or false?
    Available in English

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  • Games

    Fajnie, że wiesz

    Game teaching resilience to disinformation based on true / false answers. Developed by Polish NGO Demagog.
    Available in Polish

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  • Games

    Fake It To Make It

    Simulation-style social-impact game. Players take on the role of someone creating and distributing fake news for a profit.
    Available in English and German

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  • Games

    Fake News Bingo

    Bingo game on disinformation to print out.
    Available in German

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  • Games

    Fakey

    The game teaches media literacy, though differentiation and analysis of news.
    Available in English

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  • Games

    Fakt oder Fake: Das Handysektor Fake News Quiz

    Spot disinformation on social media. Can you tell the difference between facts and fakes?
    Available in German

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    GeoGuessr

    GeoGuessr is a geography game, in which you are dropped somewhere in the world in a street view panorama and your mission is to find clues and guess your location on the world map. Great game to practice geo-location skills.
    Available in Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish and Turkish

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Get Bad News

    In Get Bad News, you take on the role of fake news-monger. Drop all pretence of ethics and choose a path that builds your persona as an unscrupulous media magnate. For persons 14 years +.

    Includes teachers’ guide.
    Available in Bosnian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, German, Romanian.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Get Bad News Junior

    Get Bad News version for children (8-10 years old).
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Go Viral Game

    GO VIRAL! is a 5-minute game that helps protect you against COVID-19 misinformation. You’ll learn about some of the most common strategies used to spread false and misleading information about the virus.
    Available in Croatian, English, Estonian, French, Georgian, German, Italian, Latvian, Polish, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Ukrainian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Grandma’s Album

    A game teaching geolocation skills. Great resource for history class.
    Available in Armenian, Azeri, English and Georgian

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  • Games

    Harmony Square Game

    The game’s setting is the idyllic Harmony Square. You are hired as Chief Disinformation Officer. The goal of the game is to expose the tactics and manipulation techniques that are used to mislead people, build up a following, or exploit societal tensions for political purposes.
    Available in Arabic, Bahasa Indonesia, Czech, Dutch, English, French, German, Hungarian, Latvian, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian, Slovenian, Spanish, Tagalog, Vietnamese

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Hate or Tolerate

    Imagine that you are a journalist. The game gives you an opportunity to independently build a story and publish it, seek sources, verify facts, balance opinions. It teaches tolerance.
    Available in Armenian, Azeri, English and Georgian

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  • Games

    Measure the Truth and Your Nose

    A player evaluates credibility of information and various propaganda methods. To do so, the player must select one of four alternative answers. If the answer is incorrect, player’s nose will grow in Pinocchio’s style.
    Available in Armenian, Azeri, English and Georgian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Media Literacy Mission Game

    Highly engaging game with Ukraine-specific examples. Aimed at audience 18+.
    Available in English and Ukrainian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Mediabattle

    Mediabattle is a media literacy game for school children.

    Available in Armenian (Ukrainian, Romanian and Belarusian versions are available on their national platforms)

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    News Literacy Project Quizzes

    Collection of quizzes testing vetting news sources, social media behaviour, conspiracy theories thinking, the work of the newsroom and many more.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Observation Online Challenge

    A quick visual resource to sharpen your observation skills. Each photograph contains visual clues to help you identify where it was taken.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Online Course: Disinformation and Deepfakes

    Online course on disinformation and deepfakes in the context of election interference designed by Alliance of Democracies and Canopy LAB.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Pilna Doma

    Pilna Doma offers three interactive media literacy trainings for high school students: ‘Reliable source of information’, ‘To share or not to share’, ‘Become a journalist’. It is a media literacy project initiated by Baltic Centre for Media Excellence in cooperation with British Council and US Embassy Riga.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Post Facto

    Post Facto is a game where you become the fact-checker. Read the story that robot FactyPlex 5000 has been sharing on social media, and investigate the clues to determine if it is real – or fake!
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    P’tit Libé

    Climate change related disinformation. Game for young audiences.
    Available in French

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Quack Hunter

    Distinguish false information form real. Catch the ducks and assess the information that they are carrying.
    Available in Armenian, Azeri, English and Georgian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Shopping in Milan

    Learn how to avoid phishing and online scams.
    Available in Armenian, Azeri, English and Georgian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    The Adventures of Literatus

    The Adventures of Literatus is a fact-checking game designed for teenagers. There is a board game available. Created by Media Initiatives Center.

    Available in Armenian, Georgian, English, Polish, Ukrainian and Romanian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Troll Factory

    Troll Factory shows you first-hand how information operations work on social media. The goal of the game is to illustrate how fake news, emotive content and bot armies are utilized to affect moods, opinions and decision-making.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Troll Island

    Learn how to recognize online trolls.
    Available in Armenian, Azeri, English and Georgian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Tsantsar

    Tsantsar is a digital literacy game focused on safety and data protection designed for adults.

    Available only in Armenian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Games

    Verif!cation Quiz Bot

    Series of quizzes posted daily on Twitter.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    Acht Milliarden

    Weekly podcast by Der Spiegel on foreign affairs.
    Available in German

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    Different Lawfare Institute Podcasts

    Lawfare currently hosts eight podcasts offering a variety of perspectives on national security. Our recommendation: The Lawfare Podcast and the Arbiters Of Truth episodes on disinformation and platform policy, #LiveFromUkraine and ChinaTalk.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    DW News Show

    Podcast by Deutsche Welle with Alexander Plyushchev and Tatyana Felgenhauer. Commenting current affairs, ina particular Russia’s war in Ukraine.
    Available in Russian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    History Keepers Podcast

    To raise awareness about Ukrainian history and to counter Russian disinformation which aims to spread falsified information about the past, Media and Communication Educational and Research Center (MCERC) teamed up with a local online media platform Publika and launched a series of “History Keepers” podcasts. The series is narrated by Olena Shevchenko from Taras Shevchenko State University.

    Available in Russian with Georgian subtitles

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    Information War

    Podcasts on the information war with Jessika Aro and Liz Wahl, who have “been on the front lines of the information war before most of the world even knew there was an information war”.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    Majlis – Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty

    Weekly podcast about significant political developments and pressing social issues affecting the nations of Central Asia. Host Bruce Pannier with his guests.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    Power Corrupts

    The podcast on the intersection of power and corruption over topics such as conspiracy theories, unbelievable stories, election rigging and many more.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    Radio Sweden Russian

    Podcast about current affairs in Russia and war in Ukraine by Radio Sweden.
    Available in Russian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    Russian fake, go to ***!

    Daily podcast by Detector Media, demystifying Russian disinformation in the context of war in Ukraine. It also offers tips on how to avoid falling for disinformation. Host Vadym Misky.

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    The Naked Pravda

    The Naked Pravda highlights how our top reporting intersects with the wider research and expertise that exists about Russia. Here you’ll hear from the world’s community of Russia experts, activists, and reporters about issues that are at the heart of Meduza’s stories and crucial to major events in and around Russia.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    The Week Ahead In Russia

    Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty podcasts about weekly most important developments in Russia. It’s hosted each Monday by Steve Gutterman, and features a rotating panel of guests.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    Ukrainian Spaces

    What matters for Ukrainians discussed by the Ukrainians. Amplifying their voices and topics important to them.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    War on Truth

    What’s fake, what’s real? Stories from the information war over Ukraine. BBC disinformation reporter Marianna Spring speaks to people caught up in the battle for the truth. Podcast by BBC Radio 4.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    Wind of Change

    8-part miniseries on the “Wind of Change” by the Scorpions. Namely, whether it was a plot by the CIA to undermine the Soviet Union. A highly enjoyable and professionally narrated entertainment.
    Available in English

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    Голос Америки (Voice of America in Russian)

    News podcast on current affairs in Russia and beyond.
    Available in Russian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    Кавачай (Kavachay)

    Ukrainian journalist Anna Filimonova and Russian journalist Aleksey Ponomaryov discuss what is happening in Ukraine and Russia.
    Available in Russian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    Текст недели (Text of the Week)

    Meduza’s podcast discussing most notable Meduza’s text of the week. Here you can hear the voices of the characters, a conversation with the author, details that were not included in the text, and music specially written for this story.
    Available in Russian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    Что Нового (What’s new)

    Novaya Gazeta’s podcast about major events in Russia and around the world. The podcast has been suspended, but it is still possible to listen to the old episodes.
    Available in Russian

    VIZUALIZAȚI
  • Podcasts

    Что случилось (What happened)

    Meduza’s news podcast. Comes out Monday-Friday. Each issue is dedicated to one topic, rather than all events of the day. Host journalist Vladislav Gorin and his guests.
    Available in Russian

    VIZUALIZAȚI

DECLINAREA RESPONSABILITĂȚII

Cazurile din baza de date EUvsDisinfo vizează în principal mesajele din spațiul informațional internațional identificate ca prezentând o imagine parțială, distorsionată sau falsă a realității și care răspândesc mesaje-cheie pro-Kremlin. Aceasta nu înseamnă neapărat că un canal mediatic are legătură cu Kremlinul sau o politică editorială pro-Kremlin ori a căutat în mod intenționat să dezinformeze. Publicațiile EUvsDisinfo nu reprezintă poziția oficială a UE, iar informațiile și opiniile exprimate se bazează pe rapoartele și analizele media ale grupului operativ East Stratcom.

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